Hammurabi ( Akkadian Khammurabi, from Amorite Ammurapi, "The Kinsman is a Healer"; Ammu, paternal kinsman + Rapi, to heal; also transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. Achieving the conquest of Sumer and Akkad, and ending the last Sumerian dynasty of Isin, he was the first king of the Babylonian Empire. ...more on Wikipedia about "Hammurabi"
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (also known as the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis) and the walls of Babylon (present-day Iraq) were considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World. They were both supposedly built by Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BC . ...more on Wikipedia about "Hanging Gardens of Babylon"
Kudurru were stone sculptures used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Mesopotamia between the 16th and 12th centuries BCE. The word is Akkadian for "frontier" or "boundary." The kudurrus are the only surviving artworks for the period of Kassite rule in Babylonia with examples kept in the Louvre and the National Museum of Iraq. ...more on Wikipedia about "Kudurru"
The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ...more on Wikipedia about "List of kings of Babylon"
Mahuza (in Hebrew and Aramaic sources, particularly Jewish ones, Maḥuza) is the name given to the metropolis formed by Ctesiphon and Seleucia on opposite sides of the Tigris River. It was one of the cites of an early Babylonian Talmudic yeshiva as well as the original seat of the Exilarch. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mahuza"
In 1886-1887 a German expedition under Dr Robert Koldewey explored the cemetery of El Hibba (immediately to the south of Telloh), and for the first time made us acquainted with the burial customs of ancient Babylonia. Another German expedition, on a large scale, was despatched by the Orientgesellschaft in 1899 with the object of exploring the ruins of Babylon; the palace of Nebuchadrezzar and the great processional road were laid bare, and Dr W. Andrae subsequently conducted excavations at Qal'at Sherqat, the site of Assur. ...more on Wikipedia about "Modern discovery of Babylonia and Assyria"
Nabonassar (also Nabonasser, Nabu-nasir, Nebo-adon-Assur or Nabo-n-assar) was a king of Assyria, who founded the Chaldean and Babylonian kingdom. He became king in 747 BC, and ruled for 14 years, until 734 BC. The Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus started an era, i.e. a start point for chronological calculations, on New Year's day in the Egyptian calendar of that year (Wednesday February 26, 747 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar). On this day the Nabonassar era (AN - Anno Nabonassari) began, which was used by Ptolemy and later astronomers, but not by the Babylonians themselves. ...more on Wikipedia about "Nabonassar"
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Nabu-rimanni (also spelled Naburianos, Naburiannuos, Naburiannu, Naburimannu or Naburimani) (c. 560 BC - c. 480 BC) was a Chaldean or Babylonian astronomer and mathematician. ...more on Wikipedia about "Nabu-rimanni"
Nehardea or Nehardeah was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka; one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism. As the seat of the exilarch it traced its origin back to King Jehoiachin. According to Sherira Gaon (Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 26), Jehoiachin and his coexilarchs built a synagogue at Nehardea, for the foundation of which they used earth and stones which they had brought, in accordance with the words of Psalms cii. 17 (A. V. 16), from Jerusalem (comp. a similar statement in regard to the founding of the Jewish city of Ispahan, in "Monatsschrift," 1873, pp. 129, 181). This was the synagogue called " Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries (R. H. 24b; Avodah Zarah 43b; Niddah 13a), and which Abaye asserts (Meg. 29a) was the seat of the Shekhinah in Babylonia. The Aaronic portion of the Jewish population of Nehardea was said to be descended from the slaves of Pashur ben Immer, the contemporary of King Jehoiachin ( Kiddushin 70b). ...more on Wikipedia about "Nehardea"
Nibiru, to the Babylonians, was the celestial body associated with the god Marduk. The name is Akkadian and means 'ferry boat', 'crossing place' or 'place of transition'. In some Babylonian texts it is identified with the planet Jupiter; in Tablet 5 of the Enûma Elish it may be the pole star , which at the time was Thuban or possibly Kochab. ...more on Wikipedia about "Nibiru"
Oannes, was the name given by the 3rd century BC Babylonian writer Berossus to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom. ...more on Wikipedia about "Oannes"
Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija) was an ancient Babylonian city on the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad. The precise location of Opis has not been established, but from the Akkadian and Greek texts, it was located on the east bank of the Tigris, near the Diyala River. ...more on Wikipedia about "Opis"
The main difficulty in reading Babylonian and Assyrian proper names arises from the preference given to the "ideographic" method of writing them. According to the developed cuneiform system of writing, words may either be written by means of a sign (or combination of signs) expressive of the entire word, or they may be spelled out phonetically in syllables. So, for example, the word for "name" may be written by a sign MU, or it may be written out by two signs s/lu-mu, the one sign MU representing the Sumerian word for "name". In the case of a Babylonian or Assyrian text this must be read as shumu — the Akkadian equivalent of the Sumerian MU. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proper names of Babylonia and Assyria"
Pumbedita (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumbeditha, Pumpedita) was the name of a city in ancient Babylonia that was a major center of Talmud scholarship, that together with the city of Sura, gave rise to the Babylonian Talmud. The academy there was founded by Judah ben Ezekiel in the late third century. ...more on Wikipedia about "Pumbedita" My shortopedia and me.
Qa (also known as a qû or ka) was an ancient Babylonian liquid measurement equal to the volume of a cube whose dimensions are each one handbreadth (3.9 to 4 inches, or 9.9 to 10.2 cm) in length. The cube held one great mina (about 2 pounds, or 1 kg) of water. Five qa made a šiqlu, 100 qa an imeru (donkey load), and 300 qa a gur. The gur was the equivalent of about 80 U.S. gallons (302 litres). ...more on Wikipedia about "Qa (unit)"
Samsu-Iluna (Samsuiluna), was the King of Babylon, who reigned from 1749 BC to 1712 BC. ...more on Wikipedia about "Samsu-Iluna"
Under Tiglath-Pileser III arose the Second Assyrian Empire, which differed from the first in its greater consolidation. For the first time in history, the idea of centralization was introduced into politics; the conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate bureaucracy at the head of which was the king, each district paying a fixed tribute and providing a military contingent. The Assyrian forces became a standing army, that, by successive improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an irresistible fighting machine; and Assyrian policy was directed towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire, thereby throwing its trade and wealth into Assyrian hands. ...more on Wikipedia about "Second Assyrian Empire"
Sin-Muballit was the father of Hammurabi. He was the fifth king of the first dynasty of Babylonia, reigning from 1748 BC to 1729 BC. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sin-Muballit"
The priesthood of Babylonia was divided into a great number of classes, including a medicinal class. It had a counterpart in the military aristocracy of Assyria. The army was raised by conscription; the concept of a standing army seems to have been first organized in Assyria. Successive improvements were introduced into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots were replaced by cavalry; Tiglath-Pileser III gave the riders saddles and high boots, and Sennacherib created a corps of slingers. Tents, baggage-carts and battering-rams were carried on the march, and the tartan or commander-in-chief ranked next to the king. ...more on Wikipedia about "Social life in Babylonia and Assyria"
Sudines (Greek: Σουδινες) fl. ca. 240 BC: Babylonian sage. He is mentioned as one of the famous Chaldean mathematicians or astrologers by later Roman writers like Strabo (Geografia 16:1..6). Like his predecessor Berossos he moved from Babylonia and established himself among the Greeks; he was an advisor to king Attalos Soter of Pergamon. He is said to have published tables to compute the motion of the Moon which were used by the Greeks, until superseded by the work of Hipparchus and later by Claudius Ptolemaios. He may have been important in transmitting the astronomical knowledge of the Babylonians to the Greeks. He is also said to have been one of the first to assign astrological meaning to gemstones. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sudines"
Sura was a city in the southern part of ancient Babylonia, located west of the Euphrates River. It was well-known for its agricultural produce, which included grapes, wheat, barley, and fruit. that It was also major center of Torah scholarship, and home of an important yeshiva, which, together with the yeshiva in the city of Pumbedita, gave rise to the Babylonian Talmud. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sura (city)"
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For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ...more on Wikipedia about "Susa"
The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Mesopotamia and had a great and lasting impact on the development of world Jewry. The two most famous were located at Sura and Pumbedita, but major yeshivot were also located in various periods at Nehardea and Mahuza. For the Jews of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the yeshivot of Babylonia served much the same function as the ancient Sanhedrin, and it was in these academies that the Babylonian Talmud was codified. ...more on Wikipedia about "Talmudic Academies in Babylonia"
The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa recovered from the library at Nineveh, is a 7th century cuneiform tablet that bears ancient records of the rise times of Venus. Several dates for the original observations have been proposed: 1702, 1646, 1582 and 1419 BC. The information copied on the surviving tablet was first compiled during the reign of king Ammisaduqa, grandson of Hammurabi of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The tablet is currently part of the British Museum collections. ...more on Wikipedia about "Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa"
A ziggurat (Babylonian ziqqurrat, D-Stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a temple tower of the ancient Mesopotamian valley and Persia ( Iran), having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ziggurat" Tell your friends about shortopedia
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