Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleotide adenine. ADP consists of the pyrophosphate group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. ...more on Wikipedia about "Adenosine diphosphate"
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids. ATP molecules are also used to store the usable energy that plants convert in cellular respiration. In signal transduction pathways, ATP is used to provide the phosphate for the protein-kinase reactions. ...more on Wikipedia about "Adenosine triphosphate"
Adenylate kinase (also known as ADK) is a phosphotransferase enzyme ( ) that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP, a process involved in cellular energy homeostasis (see the "Biological homeostasis" section of "Homeostasis"). The reaction catalyzed is: ...more on Wikipedia about "Adenylate kinase"
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. Aerobes, in a process known as cellular respiration, use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) in order to obtain energy. ...more on Wikipedia about "Aerobic organism"
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. ...more on Wikipedia about "Anaerobic organism"
Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy. These processes require another electron acceptor to replace oxygen. Anaerobic respiration is often used interchangeably with fermentation, especially when the glycolytic pathway exists in the cell. However, certain anaerobic prokaryotes generate all of their ATP using an electron transport system and ATP synthase. ...more on Wikipedia about "Anaerobic respiration"
Anaplerotic reactions are those that form intermediates of the TCA or citric acid cycle. As this is a cycle, formation of any of the intermediates can be used to 'top up' the whole cycle. ...more on Wikipedia about "Anaplerotic reactions"
An ATP synthase ( ) is a general term for an enzyme that can synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate by utilizing some form of energy. The overall reaction sequence is: ...more on Wikipedia about "ATP synthase"
Cellular respiration is the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. Oxidation of organic material—in a bonfire, for example—is an exothermic reaction that releases a large amount of energy rather quickly. The equation for the oxidation of glucose is: ...more on Wikipedia about "Cellular respiration"
Chemiosmotic phosphorylation is the third, and final, biological pathway responsible for the production of ATP from an inorganic phosphate and an ADP molecule via oxidative phosphorylation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation"
The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. In these aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy. ...more on Wikipedia about "Citric acid cycle"
Coenzyme Q (CoQ), also known as ubiquinone or ubiquinol, is a biologically active quinone with an isoprenoid side chain, related in structure to vitamin K and vitamin E. ...more on Wikipedia about "Coenzyme Q"
The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain ( , ). It is a transmembrane lipoprotein, and it catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by accepting reducing equivalents from Coenzyme Q (CoQ): ...more on Wikipedia about "Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase"
Cristae are the infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes. The cristae provide more surface area for chemical reactions to occur within the mitochondria. This allows cellular respiration ( aerobic respiration since the mitochondria requires air) to occur. ...more on Wikipedia about "Crista" http://www.shortopedia.com , this is it!
Cytochrome c (horse heart: PDB 1HRC ) is a small heme protein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. It is a soluble protein, unlike other cytochromes, and is an essential component of the electron transfer chain. It is capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, but does not bind oxygen. It transfers electrons between Complexes III and IV.
...more on Wikipedia about "Cytochrome C"
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase ( , ) is a large transmembrane protein found in the mitochondrion and is the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transfer chain, taking 4 reducing equivalents from cytochrome c and converting molecular oxygen to water. In the process, it translocates protons, helping to establish a chemiosmotic potential that the ATP synthase then uses to synthesize ATP. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cytochrome c oxidase"
The electron transport chain (also called the electron transfer chain, ETC, e-train, or simply electron transport), is any series of protein complexes and lipid-soluble messengers that convert the reductive potential of energized electrons into a cross- membrane proton gradient. Electron transport chains are used in photophosphorylation and respiration. ...more on Wikipedia about "Electron transport chain"
Ethanol fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts when oxygen is not present in sufficient quantity for normal cellular respiration, the cellular energy-producing system, to continue. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ethanol fermentation"
A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ...more on Wikipedia about "Facultative anaerobic organism"
Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ...more on Wikipedia about "Glycolysis"
Lactic acid fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration that occurs in animal cells in the absence of oxygen. Glycolysis occurs normally, producing 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH and 2 molecules of pyruvate but the pyruvate is not metabolized to CO2 in the citric acid cycle. Furthermore, the electron transport chain (which uses O2) does not function. If the ATP needs of a cell outpace oxygen supply (such as during strenuous exercise), cells can only use fermentation for ATP production. Although it is a dead-end, the conversion of pyruvate to lactate regenerates NAD+ and this allows glycolysis to continue in the muscle cell. Lactate diffuses out of the cell and into the blood. ...more on Wikipedia about "Lactic acid fermentation"
Malate (-OOC-CH2-CH(OH)-COO-) is the ionized form of malic acid. It is an important chemical compound in biochemistry. It is an intermediate of the TCA cycle along from fumarate. It can also be formed from pyruvate as one of the anaplerotic reactions. In the C4 carbon fixation process it is a source of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle. ...more on Wikipedia about "Malate"
Malate dehydrogenase ( ) is an enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the conversion of malate into oxaloacetate (using NAD) or pyruvate (using NADPH), and vice versa (this is a reversible reaction). ...more on Wikipedia about "Malate dehydrogenase"
In cell biology, a mitochondrion (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, including those of plants, animals, fungi, and protists. A few cells, such as the trypanosome protozoan, have a single large mitochondrion, but usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mitochondrion"
NADH dehydrogenase ( ), Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain, catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q (CoQ). ...more on Wikipedia about "NADH dehydrogenase"
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