The A/S ratio is the proportion of the brain not directly connected with either receptor inputs or motor outputs, where A is the association cortex and S is the sensory cortex. The A/S ratio can be measured for any organism with a brain, and the higher the A/S ratio, the more complex the brain is. ...more on Wikipedia about "A/S ratio"
The human brain goes through several large-scale changes as the individual progresses from embryo through to old age. ...more on Wikipedia about "Aging brain"
Antennal Lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of the insect which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates. ...more on Wikipedia about "Antennal lobe"
Anterior horn can refer to different anatomical structures within the central nervous system: ...more on Wikipedia about "Anterior horn"
Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that may develop between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane - one of the 3 membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. Most cases begin during infancy, however onset may be delayed until adolescence. Symptoms of an arachnoid cyst are related to the cyst size and location. Small cysts are usually asymptomatic and are discovered only incidentally. Large cysts may cause cranial deformation or macrocephaly (enlargement of the head), producing such symptoms as headaches, seizures, hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid), increased intracranial pressure, developmental delay, and behavioral changes. Other symptoms may include hemiparesis (weakness or paralysis on one side of the body) and ataxia (lack of muscle control). Arachnoid cysts most often occur in males. ...more on Wikipedia about "Arachnoid cyst"
Arachnoid granulations (and arachnoid villi) are small protrusions of the arachnoid (the thin second layer covering the brain) through the dura (the thick outer layer). They protrude into the venous sinuses of the brain, and allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to exit the brain, and enter the blood stream. Occasionally, they are referred to by their old name: Pacchioni's granulations or pacchionian bodies, named after Italian anatomist Antonio Pacchioni. ...more on Wikipedia about "Arachnoid granulation"
Archicortex is basically categorized under allocortex. It is any cortex with fewer than six areas, specifically three layered hippocampal cortexes. It is necessary for hippocampus formation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Archicortex"
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ASPM is a gene located on human chromosome 1, band q31 (1q31) which is associated with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. "ASPM" is an acronym for "Abnormal Spindle-like, Microcephaly-associated", which reflects its being an ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" (asp) gene. ...more on Wikipedia about "ASPM"
Bacterial meningitis is a condition in which the layers lining the brain (the meninges) have become inflamed as a result of infection with bacteria. ...more on Wikipedia about "Bacterial meningitis"
The barrel cortex is part of an anatomically visible map of the contralateral body surface in layer IV of the somatosensory cortex of certain mammalian brains. ...more on Wikipedia about "Barrel field"
The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain associated with motor and learning functions. However, there is no single definitive function that can be assigned to the mammalian basal ganglia. ...more on Wikipedia about "Basal ganglia"
In animals, the brain, or encephalon ( Greek for "in the head"), acts as the control center of the central nervous system. In most animals, the brain is located in the head close to the primary sensory apparatus and the mouth. While all vertebrate nervous systems have a brain, invertebrate nervous systems may have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. The brain is an extremely complex organ; for example, the human brain is a collection of 100 billion neurons, each linked with up to 25,000 others ** . This huge number of interconnecting neurons—often referred to as a neural ensemble—is what allows the brain to conduct such complex processes. ...more on Wikipedia about "Brain"
Anything that happens in the brain is a brain event. While clearly a kind of physical event, some philosophers, when they discuss the mind-body problem, argue that some (certainly not all) brain events are also mental events. ...more on Wikipedia about "Brain event"
The central canal is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord. The central canal is contiguous with the ventricular system of the brain. ...more on Wikipedia about "Central canal"
The central nervous system (CNS) represents the largest part of the nervous system. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. ...more on Wikipedia about "Central nervous system"
The cerebellum ( Latin: "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. Many neural pathways link the cerebellum with the motor cortex—which sends information to the muscles causing them to move—and the spinocerebellar tract—which provides feedback on the position of the body in space ( proprioception). The cerebellum integrates these two functions, using the constant feedback on body position to fine-tune motor movements. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cerebellum"
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). It is basically a saline solution and acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cerebrospinal fluid"
The choroid plexus is the area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. ...more on Wikipedia about "Choroid plexus"
In neuroanatomy, a cistern ( Latin: "box") is any opening in the subarachnoid space of the brain created by a separation of the arachnoid and dura mater. These spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. There are many cisterns in the brain with several especially large, notable ones each with their own name. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cistern (neuroanatomy)"
The cisterna magna is a large cistern between the cerebellum and medulla. As with all cisterns of the brain, this cistern is an opening in the subarachnoid space created by the separation of the dura mater and arachnoid layer. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cisterna magna"
Climbing fibers are the name given to a series of neuronal projections from the inferior olivary nucleus located in the medulla. These axons pass through the pons and enter the cerebellum where they form synapses with the deep cerebellar nuclei and Purkinje cells. Each climbing fiber will form synapses with 1-10 Purkinje cells. Early in development, Purkinje cells are innervated by multiple climbing fibers, but as the cerebellum matures, these inputs gradually become eliminated resulting in a single climbing fiber input per Purkinje cell. These fibers provide very powerful, excitatory input to the cerebellum which results in the generation of complex spikes in Purkinje cells. Climbing fiber activation is thought to serve as a motor error signal sent to the cerebellum, and is an important signal for motor learning. ...more on Wikipedia about "Climbing fiber" Can you feel it? shortopedia. Central_nervous_system
(CTZ) The Chemoreceptor trigger zone is an area of the brain which receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with the Vomit Centre, to initiate vomiting. ...more on Wikipedia about "CTZ"
The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ...more on Wikipedia about "Diencephalon"
Executive functions are the conscious control of one's thoughts, emotions, and movements. This control allows for available information to be used in planning, prioritizing, sequencing, self-monitoring, self-correcting, abstract thinking, problem solving and inhibiting, initiating, controlling, or altering behavior. ...more on Wikipedia about "Executive functions"
In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. Extrapyramidal neurons, like related gamma system neurons, excite or inhibit anterior horn cells. ...more on Wikipedia about "Extrapyramidal system"
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