The European Enforcement Order is a method of recovering monies from debtors within the European Union. The procedure was established by Council Regulation (EC) 805/2004 of 21 April 2004 and comes into force on 21 October 2005. The EEO is a simplified procedure for recovering debts in uncontested claims. Uncontested claims are defined in Article 3 of the regulation as one of the following:- ...more on Wikipedia about "European Enforcement Order"
A Fatal Accident Inquiry (FAI) is a unique aspect of the Scottish legal system, which is requested by a Procurator Fiscal when a fatal accident has occurred. ...more on Wikipedia about "Fatal Accident Inquiry"
Federal common law is a term used in the United States to describe common law that is developed by the federal courts, instead of by the courts of the various states. Although the United States Supreme Court has effectively barred the creation of federal common law in areas traditionally under the authority of state courts, there are several areas where federal common law continues to govern. ...more on Wikipedia about "Federal common law"
Federal question jurisdiction is a term used in the United States law of civil procedure to refer to the situation in which a United States federal court has subject matter jurisdiction to hear a civil case because the plaintiff has alleged a violation of the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. ...more on Wikipedia about "Federal question jurisdiction"
Fictitious defendants are real persons a plaintiff believes it has a cause of action against in a lawsuit who, for one reason or another, cannot be identified by the plaintiff before a lawsuit is commenced. As the statute of limitations for many torts such as medical malpractice is generally very short, plaintiffs under pressure to issue an originating process such as a statement of claim often use contrived names in the title of proceedings (most commonly " John Doe" or "Jane Doe") and identify the person's role in the lawsuit in the body of the pleading. Generally, this tactic preserves the limitation period and, with leave of the court, the plaintiff can later substitute the real name of the defendant once it is learned during the discovery process. ...more on Wikipedia about "Fictitious defendants"
Implied cause of action is a term used in United States statutory and constitutional law for circumstances when a court will determine that a statute or provision that creates rights also supports a remedy that can be achieved through a lawsuit, even though no remedy is explicitly provided for in the statute. Implied causes of action arising under the Constitution of the United States are treated differently than those based on statutes. ...more on Wikipedia about "Implied cause of action"
Motion in limine ( Latin: "at the outset") is a motion, raised before or during trial, to allow or exclude (usually the latter) the presentation of certain evidence to the jury. This is done in judge's chambers, out of hearing of the jury. If a question is to be decided in limine, it will be for the judge to decide. Usually it is used to shield the jury from possibly inadmissible and harmful evidence. ...more on Wikipedia about "In limine" Tell your opinion about www.shortopedia.com
An inquest is a formal process of state investigation. A common type inquest is a medical examination of any cause of death under suspicious circumstances. Larger inquests can be held into disasters, or into cases of corruption. ...more on Wikipedia about "Inquest"
An interlocutory appeal, in the law of civil procedure is an appeal of a ruling by a trial court that is made before the trial itself has concluded. Most jurisdictions generally prohibit such appeals, requiring parties to wait until the trial has concluded before they challenge any of the decisions made by the judge during that trial. However, many jurisdictions make an exception for decisions that are particularly prejudicial to the rights of one of the parties. For example, if a party is asserting some form of immunity from suit, or is claiming that the court completely lacks personal jurisdiction over them, then it is recognized that being forced to wait for the conclusion of the trial would violate their right not to be subjected to a trial at all. ...more on Wikipedia about "Interlocutory appeal"
In law, interrogatories (also known as Requests for Further Information) are a formal set of written questions propounded by one litigant and required to be answered by an adversary, in order to clarify matters of evidence and help to determine in advance what facts will be presented at any trial in the case. ...more on Wikipedia about "Interrogatories"
Involuntary dismissal is the termination of a court case despite the plaintiff's objection. ...more on Wikipedia about "Involuntary dismissal"
A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. At the same time the court may also make a range of court orders, such as imposing a sentence upon a guilty defendant in a criminal matter, or providing a remedy for the plaintiff in a civil matter. ...more on Wikipedia about "Judgment"
Judgment as a matter of law (JMOL) is a motion made by a party, during trial, claiming the opposing party has insufficient evidence to reasonably support its case. JMOL is similar to summary judgment, which is a motion made before trial. JMOL is also known as a directed verdict, which it has replaced in American Federal courts. ...more on Wikipedia about "Judgment as a matter of law"
Jurisdiction in rem is jurisdiction that a court in any state may exercise over large items of moveable property located within the physical territory covered by its powers regardless as to whether there is any personal jurisdiction over those persons who may have an interest in the property. The most frequent circumstance in which this occurs in the Anglo-American legal system is when a suit is brought in admiralty law against a vessel to satisfy debts arising from the operation or use of the vessel. ...more on Wikipedia about "Jurisdiction in rem"
A jury is a sworn body of persons convened to render an impartial verdict (finding of fact) on a legal question officially submitted to them, or to set a penalty or judgement in a jury trial of a court of law. ...more on Wikipedia about "Jury"
Justiciability is a term used in civil procedure to describe whether a dispute is capable of being settled by a court of law. In order for an issue to be justiciable by a United States federal court, all of the following conditions must be met: ...more on Wikipedia about "Justiciability"
A material witness is a witness who possesses relevant and important information in a criminal investigation or trial. Under United States law, material witnesses—which may be victims or eyewitnesses—can not be detained unless the judge believes the person in question will flee to avoid participating in the investigation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Material witness"
Minimum contacts is a term used in the United States law of civil procedure to determine when it is appropriate for a court in one state to assert in personam jurisdiction (i.e. jurisdiction over the person, or personal jurisdiction) over a defendant from another state. The United States Supreme Court has decided a number of cases that have established and refined the principle that it is unfair for a court to assert jurisdiction over a party unless that party's contacts with the state in which that court sits are such that the party "could reasonably expect to be haled into court" in that state. This jurisdiction must "not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice." International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 U.S. 310 ( 1945). ...more on Wikipedia about "Minimum contacts"
A mistrial is a trial that a judge cancels prior to the return of a verdict. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mistrial"
A legal motion is a procedural device in law to bring a limited but contested matter before a court for decision. A motion may be thought of as a request to the judge (or judges) to make a decision about the case. Motions may be made at any point in the proceedings, although that right is regulated by court rules which vary from place to place. ...more on Wikipedia about "Motion (legal)"
Oral arguments are verbal presentations to a judge or appellate court by a lawyer (or the party when representing themselves) of the legal reasons why they should prevail. Oral argument at the appellate level accompanies written briefs, which also advance the argument of each party in the legal dispute. Oral arguments can also occur during motion practice when one of the parties presents a motion to the court for consideration before trial, such as when the case is to be dismissed on a point of law, or when summary judgment may lie because there are no factual issues in dispute. ...more on Wikipedia about "Oral argument"
Personal jurisdiction, jurisdiction of (or over) the person, or jurisdiction in personam is the power of a court to require a party (usually the defendant) or a witness to come before the court. The court must have personal jurisdiction to enforce its judgments or orders against a party. ...more on Wikipedia about "Personal jurisdiction"
In the law, a pleading is one of the papers filed with a court in a civil action, such as a complaint, a demurrer, or an answer. A complaint is the first pleading filed by a plaintiff which initiates a lawsuit. A complaint sets forth the relevant allegations of fact that give rise to one or more legal causes of action along with a prayer for relief whereas a demurrer is a pleading filed by a defendant which challenges the legal sufficiency of a complaint and an answer is a pleading which admits or denies the specific allegations set forth in a complaint and constitutes a general appearance by a defendant. A defendant may also file a cross-complaint as well as bringing other parties into a case by the process of interpleader. ...more on Wikipedia about "Pleading"
In United States law, a ruling that a matter in controversy is a political question is a statement by a federal court, declining to rule in a case because: 1) the U.S. Constitution has committed decision-making on this subject to another branch of the federal government; 2) there are inadequate standards for the court to apply; or 3) the court feels it is prudent not to interfere. Recently, courts have held that Congress's impeachment procedures and the President's authority over foreign affairs, particularly the President's powers to abrogate treaties and commit troops, are political questions. ...more on Wikipedia about "Political question"
Pro se is a Latin adjective meaning "for self", that is applied to someone who represents himself (or herself) without a lawyer in a court proceeding, whether as a defendant or a plaintiff and whether the matter is civil or criminal. Most courts allow people to appear in court and submit legal documents pro se, but some prohibit legal "persons" such as corporations from appearing without representation. Pro se litigants are usually able to obtain assistance from a pro se clerk, or in very limited circumstances, the judge may even give certain advice from the bench on how to navigate the law. ...more on Wikipedia about "Pro se"
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