In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. They are similar to palato-alveolar and retroflex fricatives, but are laminal rather than apical or sub-apical as the retroflex fricatives are, and are more fully palatalized than the "domed" palato-alveolar fricatives are. Alveolo-palatal consonants can be found in Chinese languages such as Mandarin, Hakka, and Wu, as well as Abkhaz, Polish, Ubykh, Japanese, Korean, and Kinnauri. The alveolo-palatal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: ...more on Wikipedia about "Alveolo-palatal consonant"
An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i.e. the tip of the tongue). This contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue (which is just behind the apex). ...more on Wikipedia about "Apical consonant"
Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. In the articulation of approximants, articulatory organs produce a narrowing of the vocal tract, but leave enough space for air to flow without much audible turbulence. Approximants are therefore more open than fricatives. This class of sounds includes lateral approximants like , as in lip, and approximants like and in yes and well which correspond closely to vowels and semivowels. ...more on Wikipedia about "Approximant consonant"
Bidental consonants, pronounced with both the lower and upper teeth, are normally found only in speech pathology. The Extended IPA symbol is both a superscript and a subscript bridge, . ...more on Wikipedia about "Bidental consonant"
A central or medial consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. ...more on Wikipedia about "Central consonant"
Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. The pocket of air enclosed between the two closures is rarefied by a sucking action of the tongue. The release of the more forward closure produces what in many cases are the loudest consonants in the language, although in some languages such as Hadza, clicks are more subtle and may even be mistaken for ejective stops. Clicks appear more stop-like or more affricate-like depending on their place of articulation: Clicks involving an apical alveolar or laminal postalveolar closure are acoustically abrupt and sharp like plain stops, while bilabial, dental and lateral clicks have a longer and acoustically noisier sounds that are more like affricates. ...more on Wikipedia about "Click consonant"
A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. The word consonant comes from Latin and means "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel, which is the case in Latin. This conception of consonants, however, does not reflect the modern linguistic understanding which defines consonants in terms of vocal tract constriction. ...more on Wikipedia about "Consonant"
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Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical (using the tongue tip), laminal (using the tongue blade), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or sub-apical (with the tongue curled back), as well as a few rarer orientations, because only the front of the tongue has such dexterity. Coronals also have another dimension, grooved, that is used to make sibilants in combination with the orientations above. ...more on Wikipedia about "Coronal consonant"
The dental clicks are a family of click consonants found only in Africa and in the Damin ritual jargon of Australia. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dental click"
Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. (The latter articulation is called alveolar.) ...more on Wikipedia about "Dental consonant"
The dental ejective is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t_n_>. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dental ejective"
The dental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n_d. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dental nasal"
Dentolabial consonants are articulated with the lower teeth against the upper lip, the reverse of labiodental consonants. They are rare cross linguistically, but one allophone of Swedish has been described as a velarized dentolabial fricative. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dentolabial consonant"
Dorsal consonants are articulated with the mid body of the tongue (the dorsum). They contrast with coronal consonants articulated with the flexible front of the tongue, and radical consonants articulated with the root of the tongue. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dorsal consonant"
Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ejective consonant"
An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. They are occasionally called aryepiglottal consonants. ...more on Wikipedia about "Epiglottal consonant"
The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is >\. ...more on Wikipedia about "Epiglottal plosive"
An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. This contrasts with the pharyngeal consonants, where the root of the tongue contacts the back wall of the pharynx, and prototypical epiglottal consonants, where the aryepiglottal folds contact the epiglottis. ...more on Wikipedia about "Epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant"
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ...more on Wikipedia about "Flap consonant"
In phonetics, gemination is when a spoken consonant is "doubled", so that it is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a "single" consonant. The term comes from the word geminus, Latin for "twin". ...more on Wikipedia about "Gemination"
Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the so-called fricatives, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have; in fact, some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, the glottal stop at least behaves as a typical consonant in languages such as Tsou. ...more on Wikipedia about "Glottal consonant"
The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . The glottal stop is the sound made when the vocal cords are pressed together to stop the flow of air, and is the sound in the middle of the interjection uh-oh. ...more on Wikipedia about "Glottal stop"
A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs). ...more on Wikipedia about "Glottalic consonant"
In articulatory phonetics, the term guttural consonant is sometimes used to describe any of several consonantal speech sounds whose primary place of articulation is near the back of the oral cavity, and include some velar consonants, uvular consonants, pharyngeal consonants, and epiglottal consonants. ...more on Wikipedia about "Guttural consonant"
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. This contrasts with apical consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the tongue apex (tongue tip) only. This distinction applies only to coronal consonants, which use the front of the tongue. ...more on Wikipedia about "Laminal consonant" My way is www.shortopedia.com
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