The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ...more on Wikipedia about "Marca Hispanica"
The Maulets are a group within the National Movement of Catalan Liberation, existing since 1988. However, the term applies to a historical partisan group, Valencians who supported Charles III of Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession, and antagonists of the Botiflers, supporters of Philip V of Spain. ...more on Wikipedia about "Maulets"
Catalanist groups also meet in the Fossar de les Moreres, where they pay homage to the defenders of city who where killed and buried in that place. ...more on Wikipedia about "National Day of Catalonia"
The Nueva Planta decrees ( Spanish:Decretos de Nueva Planta, Catalan: Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. Taking France as a model of a centralized state, Philip V took advantage of his military victories to suppress the institutions, privileges, and the ancient fueros of the areas that were formerly part of the Crown of Aragon ( Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands). The decrees ruled that all the territories in the Crown of Aragon were to be ruled by the laws of Castile, making these regions part of a uniformly administered, centralized Spain. ...more on Wikipedia about "Nueva Planta decrees"
Osona (also, in the Early Middle Ages, Ausona) is one of the historical Catalan counties and the corresponding bishopric, whose territory was roughly the current comarca of Osona, capital Vic. ...more on Wikipedia about "Osona"
Pallars is one of the historical Catalan counties, collindant with the county of Ribagorça and the county of Urgell. Its territory was between the Pyrenees and the Montsec mountains, that is, the current comarques of Pallars Sobirà and Pallars Jussà. The historical capital was Sort. ...more on Wikipedia about "Pallars"
The title of Prince of Girona comes from the Crown of Aragon, more precisely when in the year 1351, the king Pere IV of Aragon nominated its successor and conceded him the title of Duke of Girona, which embraced territories of the counties of Girona, Besalú, Empúries and Osona. ...more on Wikipedia about "Prince of Girona"
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The Uprising of Catalonia (known in Catalan as the “Guerra dels Segadors” or Reapers' War) affected a large part of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659. It had an enduring effect in Treaty of the Pyrenees, which ceded the county of Roussillon and half of the county Cerdagne to France, thereby splitting the Catalan population. ...more on Wikipedia about "Reapers' War"
Remença was a Catalan mode of serfdom; the equivalent Spanish word is remensa. Those who were serfs under this mode are properly ...more on Wikipedia about "Remença"
Roger de Flor, a catalan military adventurer of the 13th and 14th century, was the second son of a German falconer surnamed Blum ( flower) in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who fell at Tagliacozzo ( 1268). ...more on Wikipedia about "Roger de Flor"
Roger of Lauria, also Ruggero or Ruggiero di Lauria (c. 1245- January 17 1305) - Sicilian admiral of the fleet of Aragon. He was probably the most successful and talented naval tactician of the Medieval period. He served under King Peter III of Aragon as well as his successor James II. Roger of Lauria commanded the Aragonese fleet during the campaign to capture Sicily from the Angevins after the Sicilian Vespers revolt in 1282; he fought and won 6 naval galley battles: ...more on Wikipedia about "Roger of Lauria"
Roussillon ( Catalan Rosselló; Spanish Rosellón) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees). It is also called French Catalonia or Northern Catalonia, the latter term specially used by Catalan-speaking community. This includes the homonymous Catalonian comarca of Rosselló. ...more on Wikipedia about "Roussillon"
The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sicilian Vespers"
The Tragic Week (in Catalan, la Setmana Tràgica; in Spanish, la Semana Trágica) ( July 25- August 2, 1909) is the name used for a series of bloody confrontations between the working classes of Barcelona and other cities of Catalonia, backed by the anarchists, communists and republicans, and the army during the last week of July, 1909. ...more on Wikipedia about "Tragic Week"
The Corbeil Treaty, is an agreement signed on 11th May 1258 in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes, in the region of Island of France) between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon. ...more on Wikipedia about "Treaty of Corbeil"
The Treaty of the Pyrenees was a treaty signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years' War. ...more on Wikipedia about "Treaty of the Pyrenees"
Urgell is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdagne. Its maximal extension territory was between the Pyrenees and the taifa of Lleida, that is, the current comarques of Alt Urgell, Noguera, Solsonès, Pla d'Urgell, Urgell itself, and the still independent country of Andorra. ...more on Wikipedia about "Urgell"
Western Francia was the land under the control of Charles the Bald after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. It is the precursor of modern France. It was known variously as Francia Occidentalis and the Kingdom of the West Franks. ...more on Wikipedia about "Western Francia"
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