Abu Sa'id ( 1316 - 1335; also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran. ...more on Wikipedia about "Abu Sa'id (Ilkhanid dynasty)"
The Altan Tobchi ("The Golden Story") is a national chronicle and set of Mongolian judicial laws over historical content in the 17th century. It was written in 1604. Some parts of the 13th century Mongolian The Secret History of the Mongols appear in Altan Tobchi. It is regarded as a classic literature in Mongolia. ...more on Wikipedia about "Altan Tobchi"
Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan ( 1206— 1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili river (eastern Kazakhstan) and Kashgaria (western Tarim Basin) to Transoxiana. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states and northern Iran after the death of his father which he ruled until his death in 1242. The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, part of the Mongol Empire. These territories would later become the Mongol-Turkish states. ...more on Wikipedia about "Chagatai Khanate"
Chormaqan was one of the most famous generals of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and Ogedey Khan. He was a member of the keshik(elite troops) and was also known as Chormaqan Noyan ...more on Wikipedia about "Chormaqan"
The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. They maintained the last nomadic empire around Dzungaria from the 17th century to the middle 18th century. ...more on Wikipedia about "Dzungars"
Esen Tayisi was a 15th century Mongolian prince of the Oirat horde (also known as the Kalmyks), best-known for capturing the Zhengtong Emperor after the Battle of Tumu Fortress. In 1439, he succeeded his father, Toghon Tayisi, who had expanded Oyirad territory substantially, with more Mongol tribes acknowledging his supremacy. Under Esen Tayisi's leadership, the Oirats conquered the rest of Mongolia, including the Jurchens and Tuvans (Uriankhais), and took over control of the Hami oasis on the Silk Road between the Gobi and the Takla Makan deserts. ...more on Wikipedia about "Esen Tayisi"
The Golden Horde was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ...more on Wikipedia about "Golden Horde" This text is made on www.shortopedia.com
(History of modern Mongolia) See also : ...more on Wikipedia about "History of modern Mongolia"
* Mongolia - Entry on Mongolia from the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia. ...more on Wikipedia about "History of Mongolia"
The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. It was centered in the land of Persia and included present-day Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan and western Pakistan. It was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219- 1224, and the continual expansion of Mongol presence under the commands of Chormagan, Baiju, and Eljigidei. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ilkhanate"
The Mongol Empire ( 1206– 1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history ruling 35 million km² (13.8 million miles²) and more than 100 million people (the British Empire was larger in absolute area, but it was non-contiguous). Founded by Genghis Khan in 1206 after unifying the Mongol tribes, it encompassed the majority of the territories from southeast Asia to central Europe. During its existence, the Mongol Empire facilitated cultural exchange and trade between the East, West, and the Middle East in the period of the 13th and 14th centuries. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongol Empire"
The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus' by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. The invasion precipitated the breakup of Kievan Rus' and influenced development of Russian history, including rise of the Moscow principality. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongol invasion of Rus"
The of 1274 and 1281 were major events of macrohistorical importance, despite their ultimate failures. These invasion attempts are among the most famous events in Japanese history, and due to their role in setting a limit on Mongol expansion, are arguably crucial events to world history as a whole. They are referred to in many works of fiction, and are the earliest events for which the word kamikaze, or "divine wind", is widely used. In addition, with the possible exception of the end of World War II, these failed invasion attempts are the closest Japan has ever come to being invaded within the last 1500 years or so. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongol invasions of Japan"
The dollar was the currency of Mongolia between 1921 and 1925. It replaced the Chinese yuan at par. Only paper money was issued. It was replaced by the Mongolian tugrug in 1925. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongolian dollar"
The term Mongolian Royal Family refers to the family of Prince Demchugdongrub (chin. De Wang), Japanese puppet ruler of Mengjiang, as a part of Inner Mongolia was called during the period of its Japanese occupation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongolian Royal Family"
==Origins of the Mongols== ...more on Wikipedia about "Mongols before Genghis Khan"
Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. ...more on Wikipedia about "Oirats"
The People's Repubic of Mongolia ( Mongolian: Бугд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ)) was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. Throughout its history, the state remained firmly Stalinist and an ally of the Soviet Union. It existed in the region known as Outer Mongolia. ...more on Wikipedia about "People's Republic of Mongolia"
The Qing Dynasty ( Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ch'ing ch'ao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing (Chinese: 大清帝國, pinyin: ). The Qing was the last imperial dynasty of China. Declared as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, it changed its name in 1636 to "Qing", and conquered all of China in 1644, ruling it until 1912. "Later Jin" is sometimes spelled "Later Jinn" to distinguish from another Later Jin Dynasty (936-946). ...more on Wikipedia about "Qing Dynasty"
Baron Roman (or Robert) Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg, in Russian: Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Shternberg (Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг; although born von Ungern-Sternberg, in later life he used an "incorrect" Ungern von Sternberg name) ( January 22, 1886, new style — September 15, 1921) a.k.a. Black Baron, lieutenant-general, was one of the military commanders on the side of the White movement during the Russian Civil War, later an independent warlord in pursuit of pan- monarchist goals in Mongolia and territories east of Lake Baikal. ...more on Wikipedia about "Roman Ungern von Sternberg"
Subutai (d. 1248) was the primary strategist and good friend of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. He helped Genghis Khan with the military campaigns in Mongolia, northern China, and Central Asia. Some historians say he was called back to the capital of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan began to fear his power - but this is contradicted by his being in continuous command of Mongol armies from the time of Ghenghis Khan himself, almost up to the time of Subutai's death in 1248. He also invaded the Crimea, Kiev, Volga Bulgaria, Russia, Bohemia, Turkey, and Hungary with Batu Khan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Subutai"
The Secret History of the Mongols was probably written during or after the reign of Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan who ruled over much of China in the years after his father's death in 1227 ...more on Wikipedia about "The Secret Book of the Mongols"
The Secret History of the Mongols is the first literary work of Mongolian culture. It is written for the royal Mongol family some time after Genghis Khan's death in 1227 AD, by an anonymous author, originally in Uighur script, though the surviving manuscripts all derive from a Chinese transliteration and translation of the 14th century, significantly after the death of Genghis Khan on his conquests and perceptions viewed by the Mongols. The book's origin is Mongolian and like much of the texts during the period, it is somewhat folkic, poetic and not really as factual as some historians would have really wanted. ...more on Wikipedia about "The Secret History of the Mongols"
(Timeline of Mongolian history) * 1911: Mongolia declares independence under Bogd Khan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Timeline of Mongolian history"
The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance Between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed in 1913 at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar). ...more on Wikipedia about "Treaty between Tibet and Mongolia (1913)"
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