Institutionally anthropology emerged from natural history (expounded by authors such as Buffon). This was the study of human beings - typically people living in European colonies. Thus studying the language, culture, physiology, and artifacts of European colonies was more or less equivalent to studying the flora and fauna of those places. It was for this reason, for instance, that Lewis Henry Morgan could write monographs on both The League of the Iroquois and The American Beaver and His Works. This is also why the material culture of 'civilized' nations such as China have historically been displayed in fine arts museums alongside European art while artifacts from Africa or Native North American cultures were displayed in Natural History Museums with dinosaur bones and nature dioramas. This being said, curatorial practice has changed dramatically in recent years, and it would be wrong to see anthropology as merely an extension of colonial rule and European chauvinism, since its relationship to imperialism was and is complex. ...more on Wikipedia about "History of anthropology"
The history of archaeology has been one of increasing professionalisation, and the use of an increasing range of technqiues, to obtain as much data on the site being examined as possible. ...more on Wikipedia about "History of archaeology"
The history of psychology consists of a prescientific and a scientific epoch. The field of psychology as a scientific endeavor is a relatively new discipline, and borders on various other fields, ranging from physiology and the neurosciences to sociology and anthropology. ...more on Wikipedia about "History of psychology"
:This article is about history of the field of sociology. For a specific field of historical and sociological studies, see social history. ...more on Wikipedia about "History of sociology"
The idea of a universal language is at least as old as the Biblical story of Babel. Babel's fall has the mythical point that there was once a time of a universal Adamic language (now often associated with the Kabbalah) — and then something happened, analogous to the Fall of Man. In the Christian tradition there are various attitudes to regaining the supposed golden age, before Babel; these include optimism, pessimism, and recourse to parody and warnings on hubris, depending on the wished interpretation of the myth. ...more on Wikipedia about "Universal language"
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