Mariner 1 was the first spacecraft of the Mariner program. Intended to fly by Venus, it failed during launch on July 22, 1962. A hardware failure in an antenna caused the booster to lose contact with guidance systems on the ground, so an onboard computer assumed control. However, that computer's software contained a bug. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 1"
Mariner 10 was an unmanned space mission launched on November 3, 1973 to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. It was launched approximately 2 years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program (Mariners 11 and 12 were redesignated Voyager 1 and Voyager 2). ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 10"
Mariner 2, a space probe to Venus, was the first successful spacecraft in the NASA Mariner program. The Mariner 1 and 2 spacecraft were simplified versions of the Block I spacecraft of the Ranger program. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 2"
Mariner 3 and 4 were identical spacecraft of the Mariner program designed to carry out the first flybys of Mars. Mariner 3 was launched on November 5, 1964, but the shroud encasing the spacecraft atop its rocket failed to open properly, and Mariner 3 did not get to Mars. Unable to collect the Sun's energy for power from its solar panels, the probe soon died when its batteries ran out and is now in solar orbit. Three weeks later, on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 was launched successfully on an eight-month voyage to the red planet. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 3"
Mariner 4 was the fourth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and represented the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. These represented the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space. Mariner 4 was designed to conduct closeup scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth. Other mission objectives were to perform field and particle measurements in interplanetary space in the vicinity of Mars and to provide experience in and knowledge of the engineering capabilities for interplanetary flights of long duration. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 4"
Mariner 5 was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus' atmosphere with radio waves, scan its brightness in ultraviolet light, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 5"
As part of the wider Mariner program, in 1969 Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 completed the first dual mission to Mars, flying over the equator and south polar regions and analysing atmosphere and surface with remote sensors as well as recording and relaying hundreds of pictures. By chance, both flew over cratered regions and missed both the giant northern volcanoes and the equatorial grand canyon discovered later. Their approach pictures did, however, photograph about 20% of the planet's surface, showing the dark features long seen from Earth, but none of the canals mistakenly observed by ground-based astronomers. In total 198 photos were taken and transmitted back to earth, adding more detail than the earlier mission, Mariner 4. Both craft also studied the atmosphere of Mars. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 6 and 7"
Mariner-H, also commonly known as Mariner 8, was (along with Mariner 9) part of the Mariner Mars 71 project. It was intended to go into Mars orbit and return images and data. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 8"
Mariner 9 was a NASA space probe orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 and reached the planet on November 14, of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. After months of dust-storms it managed to send back surprisingly clear pictures of the surface. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mariner 9"
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