Ahmose I (also known as Amosis I) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He reigned between approximately 1550 BC- 1525 BC. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ahmose I"
Akhenaten, known as Amenhotep IV at the start of his reign, was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He is thought to have been born to Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiy in the year 26 of their reign ( 1379 BC or 1362 BC). Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, possibly after a co-regency between the two of up to 12 years. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign (subject to the debates surrounding Egyptian chronology) are from 1353 BC- 1336 BC or 1351 BC- 1334 BC. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, who has been made famous by her exquisitely painted bust in the Ägyptisches Museum of Berlin. ...more on Wikipedia about "Akhenaten"
Djeserkare Amenhotep I (d. 1504 BC) was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from 1525 BC to 1504 BC. ...more on Wikipedia about "Amenhotep I"
Aakheperure Amenhotep II (d. 1401/1400 BC) was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from 1427 BC to 1401 BC and is thought to have enjoyed a reign of 25 Years and 10 Months as a certain Misphragmouthosis according to Josephus' version of Manetho's Epitome. An inscription containing the king's prenomen was written on a wine jar from Amenhotep II's funerary temple at Thebes. It is dated to this king's highest known date--his Year 26--and names the Pharaoh's Vintner, Panehsy. ...more on Wikipedia about "Amenhotep II"
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III (called Nibmu(`w)areya in the Amarna letters) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. According to different authors he ruled ca. 1389 BC- 1351 BC, or 1391 BC- 1353 BC, following on from his father Thutmose IV. With his Chief Queen Tiy, he fathered his second son, Akhenaten, who succeeded him on the throne. ...more on Wikipedia about "Amenhotep III"
Kheperkheprure Ay (occasionally Aya or Aye) was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty. He held the throne of Egypt for a brief four-year period (probably 1325- 1321 BC or 1327- 1323 BC, depending which chronology is followed), although he was a close advisor to two (perhaps three) of the pharaohs who ruled before him and was the power behind the throne upon which his immediate predecessor sat. Ay's prenomen, Kheperkheprure, means "Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re." ...more on Wikipedia about "Ay"
Maatkare Hatshepsut or Hatchepsut (late 16th century BC – c. 1482 BC) was the fifth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Hatshepsut is generally regarded by modern Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, ruling longer than any female ruler of an indigenous dynasty. She was one of the most prolific builders of Ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper and Lower Egypt and under her reign Egypt's trade networks began to be rebuilt, after their disruption during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. She is believed to have ruled from 1503 BC to 1482 BC. Josephus writes that she reigned 21 years and 9 months, while Africanus states her reign lasted 22 years; both of whom were quoting Manetho. Hatshepsut is regarded variously as the earliest known queen regnant in history, as the first known female to take the title Pharaoh, and the first great woman in history, although all of these claims have been contested. ...more on Wikipedia about "Hatshepsut"
Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th Dynasty from 1321 BC to early 1292 BC. Horemheb came from Herakleopolis Magna near the entrance to the Fayum. His parentage is unknown but he is universally believed to be a commoner. Horemheb's birth name and epithet was Horemheb Meryamun, meaning Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun. His name is sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab. Technically, this name is transliterated as ḥr-m-ḥb mry-ỉmn, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. He may have been the same person as Paatenemheb ( Aten Is Present In Jubilation), but this is unclear. ** . ...more on Wikipedia about "Horemheb"
Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning "Strong is the Soul of Ra") was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of the heretic Akhenaten, and predecessor of Tutankhamun. He or she ruled Egypt for 2 Full Years from 1336 BC to 1334 BC according to evidence in Marc Gabolde's 1998 book "From Akhenaten to Tutankhamun." Tutankhamun's reign began immediately after Smenkare's reign. Smenkhkare may have become Akhenaten's co-regent for a few years before Akhenaten's death but he/she certainly ruled Egypt in his own right because a Year 3 date from his reign is attested within the Tomb of Pere, who was a minor Priest of Amun. This implies that after Akhenaten's death, Smenkare sought an accommodation with the Amunist factions in Egypt. ...more on Wikipedia about "Smenkhkare"
Akheperkare Thutmose I (d. 1492 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis or Tuthmose) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt from 1504 BC to 1492 BC. He was the father of the Pharaohs Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, and was the first king to be buried in the Valley of the Kings ( tombs KV20 and KV38). ...more on Wikipedia about "Thutmose I"
Akheperenre Thutmose II (d. 1479 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from either 1492 BC or 1482 BC to 1479 BC. Manetho's Epitome calls him 'Chebron' which is a reference to his prenomen--Akheperenre--and gives him a reign of 13 Years but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only 3 Years because his Highest Year Date is only a Year 1 stela. In addition, he is poorly attested in the monumental record and in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study in Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) which statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut's reign length is known to be 21 Years and 9 Months. Gabolde highlighted--in his analysis--the relatively small number of surviving scrabs known for Thutmose II compared to Tuthmose I and Hatshepsut, and estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years respectively. Subsequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a controversial and much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign. Virtually all his monuments were dismantled or recycled by later New Kingdom Pharaohs. ...more on Wikipedia about "Thutmose II"
Menkheperre Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (d. 1425 BC), was the sixth Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. He ruled from 1479 BC to 1425 BC, according to the Middle Chronology of Ancient Egypt. Older publications in the 1960's and 1970's have suggested that he ruled Egypt from 1504 BC to 1450 BC but this was based partly on the outdated and unsustainable view of a 35 Year reign for Thutmose IV. However, it is known that Manetho gives Thutmose IV a reign of only 9 Years and 8 Months in his Epitome while this king's Highest dated Year is only his Year 8. Finally, Thutmose IV's monuments are comparatively small and minor compared to those of his son Amenhotep III, who enjoyed a reign of 38 Years. Hence, Egyptologists today ascribe Thutmose IV a reign of only c.10 Years and have dated Thutmose III's accession at 1479 BC instead. ...more on Wikipedia about "Thutmose III"
Menkheperure Thutmose IV (d. 1391 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from c. 1401 BC to 1391 BC and is ascribed a reign of 9 Years and 8 Months by Manetho. This number is affirmed by a Year 8 stela from his reign in Nubia. Tuthmose IV was once thought to have enjoyed a reign of 34-35 years but this figure is not substantiated by the small number of monuments which he left behind as compared to those of his son Amenhotep III, and the complete abscence of attested Year dates for him after his 8th Year. ...more on Wikipedia about "Thutmose IV"
Nebkheperre Tutankhamun (alternate transcription Tutankhamen), named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (ruled 1334 BC – 1325 BC), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, meant "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun meant "Living Image of Amun". He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters. ...more on Wikipedia about "Tutankhamun"
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