Ancient Mesoamerican agriculture dates to the Archaic period of Mesoamerican chronology ( 8000- 2000 BC). During this period, many of the hunter gatherer micro-bands in the region began to cultivate wild plants. The cultivation of these plants probably started out as creating known areas of fall back, or starvation foods, near seasonal camps, that the band could rely on when hunting was bad, or when there was a drought. The plants could have been brought purposely, or by accident. The former could have been done by bringing a wild plant food closer to a camp site, or to a frequented area, so it was easier to get to or collect. The latter could have happened as certain plant seeds were eaten and not fully digested, causing these plants to grow wherever human habitation would take them. By creating these known areas of plant food, it would have been easier for the band to be in the right place, at the right time, to collect them. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ancient Mesoamerican agriculture"
Cacamatzin ( 1483 - 1520) was the king of Texcoco, the second most important city of the Aztec Empire. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cacamatzin"
Cacaxtla is an archaeological site located near the southern border of the Mexican state of Tlaxcala, at . ...more on Wikipedia about "Cacaxtla"
In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of a 260-day period ( Tzolkin in the Maya Calendar) with dates from a 365-day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). One Calendar Round cycle thus includes 18980 distinct dates and lasts approximately 52 years (the least common multiple of 260 and 365 is 18980). ...more on Wikipedia about "Calendar round"
Cantona is a relatively unknown archaeological site in Mexico. It is located in the state of Puebla, on the border with Veracruz, about an hour's drive from the city of Puebla. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cantona"
Chichimeca was the name that the Aztecs generically gave to a wide range of nomadic groups that inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico. ...more on Wikipedia about "Chichimeca"
Chinampa is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. Chinampas were stationary artificial islands that are used for growing crops. Chinampas were used for most of the Pre-Columbian period in the central part of modern-day Mexico; it is estimated that food provided by chinampas made up one-half to two-thirds of the food consumed by the city of Tenochtitlán (modern-day Mexico City). Chinampas became less common after the Spanish conquest of Mexico, but some still exist. The word comes from the Nahuatl word chinamitl, meaning " square made of canes." ...more on Wikipedia about "Chinampa"
Cuicuilco was an ancient city (circa 700 B.C. to A.D. 150) in the central Mexican highlands, near the southeastern portion of the valley of Mexico and is a significant archaeological site. According to translations of ancient Nahuatl, Cuicuilco can be interpreted as the "place of prayer" or the "place of the rainbow." The extended community, with its remains of an ancient ceremonial center, dates from approximately 700 B.C., and so may be the oldest civilization in this area of Mexico. It appears that, although an independent entity, the city may have had contact with the Olmec civilization to the south. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cuicuilco"
:There were two Spanish conquistadores at the start of the 16th century named Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. The one described here discovered the peninsula of Yucatán. The other founded Nicaragua: see Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua). Neither of their birth dates are known. ...more on Wikipedia about "Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (discoverer of Yucatán)"
The Huastec, also rendered as Huaxtec and Huastecos, are an indigenous people of Mexico, historically based in the states of Hidalgo, Veracruz, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas concentrated along the route of the Panuco River and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The Huastec are also known (especially by themselves) as the Teenek. ...more on Wikipedia about "Huastec"
Huemac ( 11th century?) was the last king of the Toltec before the fall of Tula/ Tollan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Huemac"
Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl "great speaker", also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). They were rulers of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, and as such became the heads of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Hueyi Tlatoani"
Scientific opinion regarding human antiquity in Mesoamerica has reflected larger trends in conceptualizing human antiquity in the western hemisphere in general. Within that foundational topic, the establishment of sites demonstrating human antiquity in Mesoamerica has centered on the association of remains and artifacts with geologic strata (context) and on the reliability of the dating of the remains and strata (methodologies). ...more on Wikipedia about "Human antiquity in Mesoamerica"
Izapa Stela 1 features a long lipped deity, which Coe describes as the early version of Mayan god of lightning and rain, GI. In Stela I, the god is walking on water while collecting fish into a basket and also wearing a basket of water on his back. ...more on Wikipedia about "Izapa"
Jade was a prized possession in ancient Mesoamerica. ...more on Wikipedia about "Jade use in Mesoamerica"
The jaguar is also important for shamans who often associate the jaguar as a spirit companion or nagual, which will protect the shaman from evil spirits and when they move between the earth and the spirit realm. In order for the shaman to combat whatever evil forces may be maligning him, or those who rely on the shaman for protection, it is necessary for the shaman to transform himself and crossover to the spirit realm. The jaguar is often chosen as a nagual because of its strength, for it is necessary that the shaman "dominate the spirits, in the same way as a predator dominates its prey" (Saunders 1998:30). The jaguar is said to possess the transient ability of moving between worlds because of its comfort in the trees and the water, their ability to hunt as well in the nighttime as in the daytime, and their habit of sleeping in caves, places often associated with the deceased ancestors. The concept of the transformation of the shaman is well documented in Mesoamerica and South America, and is demonstrated in the context of the Olmec through the prominence of the were-jaguar, and other sculpture illustrating jaguar transformation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Jaguars in Mesoamerican culture"
Juan Bautista de Pomar (died 1590) was an historian and writer interested in pre-Columbian Aztec matters after Mexico had been conquered by Spain. Based on mentions by Torquemada, we can estimate that he was born in 1535. He was the great grandson of the Tlatoani of Tlatelolco, and was half-Spanish on his father's side. He was considered noble by the Spaniards, and, after a dispute, he obtained one of the royal houses of Netzahualcoyolt of Texcoco. ...more on Wikipedia about "Juan Bautista de Pomar"
La Venta is the name of a Pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Olmec civilization. The site is located in the Mexican state of Tabasco at . ...more on Wikipedia about "La Venta"
The Mam are a Native American people of the highlands of western Guatemala. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mam language"
What is now Belize was part of the heartland of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. A number of notable Maya ruins can be found in Belize. ...more on Wikipedia about "Maya ruins of Belize"
The Mazatec are an indigenous people who inhabit an area of the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, close to the border with Puebla and Veracruz. They are related to the Mixtec and the Otomi. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mazatec"
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The Mazateco language is the native language of the Mazatec peoples of Oaxaca, Mexico. The language is a member of the Popoloca-Mazateco family, which also includes Ixcateca and Chuchon. The language can be whistled as well as spoken. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mazateco"
Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. Mesoamerican is the adjective generally used to refer to that group of Pre-Columbian cultures. This refers to an environmental area occupied by an assortment of ancient cultures that shared religious beliefs, art, architecture, and technology that made them exceptional in the Americas for three thousand years. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mesoamerica"
The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times, and in a few places continues to be played by the local Amerind inhabitants. It may have originated with the Olmecs (La Venta culture, c. 8000-400 B.C.E.) or perhaps earlier. No evidence has been discovered for Olmec ball courts. The evidence for the Olmec ballgame exists in the form of artwork. Early Olmec figurines depict wearing the same type of padded belts and padded arm and leg bands. Figurines were also found depicting female ballplayers wearing padded protection on their stomach and legs. The regalia of these figurines contain corn iconography which suggests an association between the ballgame and fertility rituals. It is likely that all ages and classes of people played the Olmec ballgame in an open field. The game followed Olmec trade networks out of Veracruz. Excavations by Michael Coe uncovered a number of ballplayer figurines at San Lorenzo (Olmec center from approximately 1200-900 BC), radiocarbon dated as far back as 1250-1150 BC. He also uncovered a stone monument, Monument 34, a life-size kneeling male wearing a padded belt, shoulder and knee protectors and a mirror pendant (a symbol of the Olmec Sun God). This monument could not be dated, but it is evidence of the growing significance of the ballgame in political and religious rituals. One ball court was also discovered at San Lorenzo. ...more on Wikipedia about "Mesoamerican ballgame"
Mesoamerican chronology ...more on Wikipedia about "Mesoamerican chronology"
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