The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical proto-language believed spoken by Adam and Eve in paradise, either identical with the language used by God to address Adam, or invented by Adam as nomothete (name-giver, Genesis 2:19). It is unclear whether the Bible assumes that this language was preserved by Adam's descendents until the confusion of tongues (Genesis 11:1-9), or that it began to evolve naturally as a consequence of Original sin (Genesis 10:5). ...more on Wikipedia about "Adamic language"
The Fuyu languages or Buyeo (Puyŏ) languages are a hypothetical language family that would relate the languages of Buyeo/Fuyu, Goguryeo, Baekje and the Japonic languages, and possibly place them together as a family under the hypothetical Altaic family. In particular, Goguryeo and Baekje considered themselves to be descended from Buyeo, and both traditionally had close relations and kinship with Yamato period Japan until they ultimately fell to the kingdom of Silla. ...more on Wikipedia about "Fuyu languages"
Graeco-Aryan refers to a hypothesis that the Proto-Greek and the Proto-Indo-Iranian languages share a common history separate from the remaining Indo-European languages. Graeco-Aryan has little support among linguists, since both geographical and temporal distribution of Greek and Indo-Iranian fit well with the Kurgan hypothesis, associating late PIE with the 4th millennium BC Yamna culture, consistent with a roughly mid- 3rd millennium BC date for both Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian. ...more on Wikipedia about "Graeco-Aryan language"
Je-Tupi-Carib ...more on Wikipedia about "Je-Tupi-Carib"
In historical linguistics, a proposed language is a language for which no direct evidence exists, most commonly the proto-language of a language family. Assumptions about proposed languages are based on the comparative method. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proposed language"
Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the name given to the posited proto-language of the languages of the Algonquian family. It is thought to have been spoken between 2500 and 3000 years ago, probably between Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario, Ontario, in Canada, and at least as far south as Niagara Falls (determined by Siebert 1967 through examination of the reconstructed terms for natural features, plants, and animals). Proto-Algonquian, in turn, was a member of the Algic family, whose other two members, Wiyot and Yurok, are (or were) spoken in California. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Algonquian language"
Proto-Baltic is the proto-language of the Baltic branch of the Indo-European languages. It either developed from Proto-Balto-Slavic, or in loose contact with Proto-Slavic, in roughly the area of the modern Baltic States, from the 2nd millennium BC. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Baltic language"
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The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. Probably spoken around 800 BC, its lexis can be confidently reconstructed on the basis of the comparative method of historical linguistics. Proto-Celtic is a direct daughter-language of Proto-Indo-European and is widely regarded as the first of the Indo-European languages to spread in North-Western and Atlantic Europe. The area in which the language seems to have first become distinguishably Proto-Celtic, as opposed to earlier Centum dialect, corresponds to the Hallstatt culture, on the western fringes of the Urnfield. From roughly 800 BC, this culture by influence of " Thraco-Cimmerian" elements introduced the Iron Age to Europe. The contemporary Cimmerians were variously claimed as ancestors of the Cimbri, Sugambri and Cymru, although other etymologies better explain the latter term (see also British Israelism). ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Celtic language"
Proto-Dravidian is the proto-language of the Dravidian languages. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Dravidian"
Proto-Euphratean is considered by some linguists and archaeologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer, to be the substratum language that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Euphratean"
Proto-Finno-Ugric is the reconstructed protolanguage for the Finno-Ugric languages, that is the ancestor of the Samic languages or Finnic languages, such as Finnish, and the Ugric languages, whose best known example is Hungarian. The parent language is Proto-Uralic, from which Proto-Finno-Ugric and Proto-Samoyedic had split. However, this classification is not without problems; Proto-Finno-Ugric may also be interpreted as a geographical grouping of Proto-Uralic dialects, because the differences are few. It has been suggested that the area where Proto-Finno-Ugric was spoken reached between the Baltic Sea and the Ural mountains. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Finno-Ugric language"
Proto-Germanic, the common ancestor ( proto-language) of Proto-Norse, Anglo-Frisian, Old High German, and Gothic, and the contemporary Germanic languages. There are no known documents in Proto-Germanic, which was unwritten, and virtually all our knowledge of this extinct language has been obtained by application of the comparative method. There are a few surviving inscriptions in a runic script from Scandinavia dated to c. 200 which many feel represent a stage of Proto-Norse immediately after the "Proto-Germanic" stage, if not exactly identical. As well, some loanwords exist in neighbouring non-Germanic languages which are believed to have been borrowed from Germanic during the Proto-Germanic phase; an example is Finnish and Estonian kuningas "king", which closely resembles the reconstructed Proto-Germanic * kuningaz. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Germanic language"
The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic- Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. Some scholars would include the fragmentary Ancient Macedonian language, either as descended from an earlier "Proto-Hellenic" language, or by definition including it among the descendents of Proto-Greek. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Greek language"
The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. The existence of such a language is generally accepted by linguists, though there has been debate about many specific details. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Indo-European language"
Proto-Kiranti is the reconstructed protolanguage of the Kiranti language family, developed largely by Sergei Starostin in the 1980s. The most important consequence of the project, from a grammarian's perspective, has been a better understanding of the verbal morphology of the Kiranti languages. Kiranti verbs are not easily segmentable, due in large part to the presence of portmanteau morphemes, crowded affix strings, and extensive (and often nonintuitive) allomorphy. The identification and arrangement of these affixes, resulting from a systematic comparison of the conjugational systems of Limbu, Dumi, Kulung, Thulung, and Hayu, has led to a far greater understanding of the Kiranti verb and its use in modern Kiranti languages. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Kiranti language"
Proto-language may either refer to a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or to a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-language"
Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic, Old Scandinavian or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Norse language"
Proto-Polynesian is the hypothetical proto-language, from which all modern Polynesian languages descend. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Polynesian language"
Proto-Romanian (also known as Common Romanian, româna comună) is a hypothetical language considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples ( Vlachs), between the 7th and the 9th century. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Romanian language"
Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. The most probable Proto-Semitic Urheimat is the Arabian peninsula. This hypothesis is based on fact that the Canaanite, Aramaic, and Arab nomadic tribes are recorded to have emerged from there. The same area of origin is likely for the Akkadians. The earliest attestations of a Semitic language are in Akkadian, dating to ca. the 23rd century BC (see Sargon of Akkad). Early inscriptions in the (pre-) Proto-Canaanite alphabet, presumably by speakers of a Semitic language, date to ca. 1800 BC. Proto-Semitic would most probably have been spoken in the 4th millennium BC, roughly contemporaneous to Proto-Indo-European. The distribution of the related Afro-Asiatic languages, and especially the Egyptian branch most closely related to Semitic, suggest an original immigration of the Proto-Semites to the Arabian peninsula from the Horn of Africa, but assumptions about such early times are necessarily speculative. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Semitic language"
Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. It was spoken before the 7th century. No Proto-Slavic writings have been found, so the language has been reconstructed from a comparison of all the attested Slavic languages and of other Indo-European languages. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Slavic language"
Proto-Uralic is the hypothetical language ancestral to the Uralic languages, including the modern Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric languages. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-Uralic language"
The term Proto-World language refers to the hypothetical latest common ancestor of all the world's languages, an ancient language from which all modern languages and language families – and usually including all known dead languages – derive. The concept is thus analogous to the widely accepted Proto-Indo-European language, the ancestor of all the Indo-European languages as reconstructed by historical linguistics. ...more on Wikipedia about "Proto-World language"
Southwestern Brythonic is one of two dialects into which the Brythonic language split following the Battle of Deorham in A.D. 577, the other being Western Brythonic, which later evolved into Welsh and Cumbric. ...more on Wikipedia about "Southwestern Brythonic language"
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