## Psychometrics

Bogardus Social Distance Scale' scale was created by Emory S. Bogardus and is a measurement technique designed for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations of varying degrees of closeness with other kinds of people. ...more on Wikipedia about "Bogardus Social Distance Scale"

Classical test theory is a body of related psychometric theory that predict outcomes of psychological testing such as the difficulty of items or the ability of test-takers. Generally speaking, the aim of classical test theory is to understand and improve the reliability of psychological tests. ...more on Wikipedia about "Classical test theory"

Cluster analysis is a class of statistical techniques that can be applied to data that exhibits “natural” groupings. Cluster analysis sorts through the raw data and groups them into clusters. A cluster is a group of relatively homogeneous cases or observations. Objects in a cluster are similar to each other. They are also dissimilar to objects outside the cluster, particularly objects in other clusters. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cluster analysis (in marketing)"

Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of living entities. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cognitive test"

In psychometrics, applied linguistics and education, competency evaluation is a means for teachers to determine the ability of their students in other ways besides the standardized test. ...more on Wikipedia about "Competency evaluation"

Concurrent validity is demonstrated where a test correlates well with a measure that has previously been validated. ...more on Wikipedia about "Concurrent validity"

Conjoint analysis, also called multi-attribute compositional models, is a statistical technique that originated in mathematical psychology. Today it is used in many of the social sciences and applied sciences including marketing, product management, and operations research. ...more on Wikipedia about "Conjoint analysis"

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In social science and psychometrics, construct validity refers to whether a scale measures the unobservable social construct (such as " fluid intelligence") that it purports to measure. The unobservable idea of a unidimensional easier-to-harder dimension must be "constructed" in the words of human language and graphics. A construct is not restricted to one set of observable indicators or attributes. It is common to a number of sets of indicators. Thus, "construct validity" can be evaluated by statistical methods that show whether or not a common factor can be shown to exist underlying several measurements using different observable indicators. This view of a construct rejects the operationist past that a construct is neither more nor less than the operations used to measure it. ...more on Wikipedia about "Construct validity"

In psychometrics, content validity (also known as "logical validity) refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social concept. For example, a depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimension of depression but fails to take into account the behavioral dimension. ...more on Wikipedia about "Content validity"

In psychometrics, criterion-related validity is a measure of how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome based on information from other variables. These variables are often represented as “intermediate” and “ultimate” criteria. For example, let us say we are conducting a study on success in college. If we find out there is a high correlation between student grades in high-school math classes and their success in college (which can be measured by many possible variables), we would say there is high criterion-related validity between the intermediate variable (grades in high-school math classes) and the ultimate variable (success in college). Essentially, the grades students received in high-school math can be used to predict their success in college. ...more on Wikipedia about "Criterion validity"

Cronbach's $\alpha$ (alpha) multivariate statistics. It has an important use as measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument, since it assesses the extent to which a set of test items can be treated as measuring a single latent variable. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), although an earlier version is the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (often shortened to KR-20), which is the equivalent for dichotomous items, and Guttman (1945) developed the same quantity under the name lambda-2. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cronbach's alpha"

Dr. David West Keirsey (* August 31 1921 in Oklahoma) is an internationally renowned psychologist, a professor emeritus at California State University, Fullerton, and the author of several books. In his most popular publications Please Understand Me (co-authored by Marilyn Bates), and the revised and expanded second volume Please Understand Me II he lays out a system of personality classification known as the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, which links human behavior to 4 temperaments and 16 types. Both volumes of Please Understand Me contain a questionnaire for type evaluation and detailed descriptions of temperament traits and personality characteristics. Dr. Keirsey specialized in family and partnership counseling, coaching minors and adults with a focus on conflict management and cooperation. ...more on Wikipedia about "David Keirsey"

In measurement and statistics, disattenuation of a correlation between two sets of parameters or measures is the estimation of the correlation in a manner that accounts for measurement error contained within the estimates of those parameters. ...more on Wikipedia about "Disattenuation"

In marketing, discriminant analysis is a statistical technique for analyzing data. It is applicable when there is only one dependent variable but multiple independent variables (similar to ANOVA and regression analysis). But unlike ANOVA and regression analysis, the dependent variable must be categorical. It is similar to factor analysis in that both look for underlying dimensions in responses given to questions about product attributes. But it differs from factor analysis in that it builds these underlying dimensions based on differences rather than similarities. Discriminant analysis is also different from factor analysis in that it is not an interdependence technique : a distinction between independent variables and dependent variables (also called criterion variables) must be made. ...more on Wikipedia about "Discriminant analysis (in marketing)"

The Exner system of scoring is the standard method in psychology for interpreting the Rorschach inkblot test. ...more on Wikipedia about "Exner system of scoring"

The F-scale is a personality test ( psychometric assessment) that attempts to quantify authoritarian tendencies. The F-scale was designed on the basis of Theodor Adorno's theory of authoritarian personality. The "F" stands for fascism. ...more on Wikipedia about "F-scale"

Factor analysis is a statistical technique that originated in psychometrics. It is used in the social sciences and in marketing, product management, operations research, and other applied sciences that deal with large quantities of data. The objective is to explain the most of the variability among a number of observable random variables in terms of a smaller number of unobservable random variables called factors. The observable random variables are modeled as linear combinations of the factors, plus " error" terms. ...more on Wikipedia about "Factor analysis"

In psychometrics, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated gf and gc respectively) are factors of intelligence test scores originally described by Raymond Cattell. Crystallized intelligence is usually described as being dependent on learning, while fluid intelligence is independent of past experience. ...more on Wikipedia about "Fluid and crystallized intelligence"

The Flynn effect is the continued year-on-year rise of IQ test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. It is named after New Zealand political scientist James R. Flynn, its discoverer. The average rate of rise seems to be around three IQ points per decade. Attempted explanations have included improved nutrition, a trend towards smaller families, better education, greater environmental complexity, and heterosis (Mingroni, 2004). ...more on Wikipedia about "Flynn effect"

The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a widely accepted but controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. The phrase "g theory" refers to hypotheses and results regarding g's biological nature, stability/malleability, relevance to real-world tasks, and other inquiries. ...more on Wikipedia about "General intelligence factor"

A Guttman scale is a psychological instrument developed using the scaling technique developed by researcher Louis Guttman in 1944 called Guttman scaling or scalogram analysis. A primary purpose of the Guttman scaling is to ensure that the instrument measures only a single trait (a property called unidimensionality, a single dimension underlies responses to the scale). Guttman's insight was that for unidimensional scales, those who agree with a more extreme test item will also agree with all less extreme items that preceded it. ...more on Wikipedia about "Guttman scale"

The etymology of the term scale can be traced to the Latin word scala meaning ladder, steps, stairway. Homogenous, internally consistent data matrices form step-like structures (cf., Fig. 3). The lack of homogeneity of data indicates the degree a data structure departs from this ideal lattice form. The conceptual differences between the homogeneity and internal consistency reliability are often poorly understood, and thus the coefficient of homogeneity is best elucidated by contrasting its limiting cases with the limiting cases of the coefficient of the internal consistency reliability. ...more on Wikipedia about "Homogeneity (psychometrics)"

Intelligence is a scientific journal dealing with intelligence and psychometrics. ...more on Wikipedia about "Intelligence (journal)"

Intelligence is usually said to involve mental capabilities such as the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. Although nonscientists generally regard the concept of intelligence as having much broader scope, in psychology, the study of intelligence generally regards this behavioral trait as distinct from creativity, personality, character, or wisdom. ...more on Wikipedia about "Intelligence (trait)"

In 1971, in the case Griggs v. Duke Power Co. ** , the US Supreme Court handed down a seminal ruling which framed US public policy on adverse impact. Griggs concerned a company which had rejected a large number of Black applicants who either lacked a high-school education or performed poorly on a paper-and-pencil cognitive test. Referring to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Court wrote, ...more on Wikipedia about "Intelligence and public policy"