The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. It works by maintaining a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' which designate network reachability between autonomous systems (AS). It is described as a path vector protocol. BGP does not use technical metrics, but makes routing decisions based on network policies or rules. The current version of BGP, BGP version 4, is specified in request for comment RFC 4271 (as per Jan 2006). This RFC obsoletes RFC 1771. ...more on Wikipedia about "Border Gateway Protocol"
The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is used to share information between routers to transport Multicast packets among networks. ...more on Wikipedia about "Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol"
A distance-vector routing protocol is a routing protocol used in routing of packet-switched networks in computer communications, as in for example the Routing Information Protocol for Internet traffic. They use the Bellman-Ford algorithm to calculate paths. ...more on Wikipedia about "Distance-vector routing protocol"
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is a balanced hybrid IP routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router. ...more on Wikipedia about "Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol"
The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a routing protocol for the Internet originally specified in 1982 by Eric C. Rosen of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and David L. Mills. It was first described in RFC 827 and formally specified in RFC 904 ( 1984). EGP is a type of path vector protocol. ...more on Wikipedia about "Exterior Gateway Protocol"
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that attempts to overcome the limitations of existing redundant router protocols by adding basic load balancing functionality. ...more on Wikipedia about "Gateway Load Balancing Protocol"
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a Cisco proprietary redundancy protocol for establishing a fault-tolerant default gateway, and has been described in detail in RFC 2281. The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol VRRP is a standards-based alternative to HSRP defined in IETF standard RFC 3768. ...more on Wikipedia about "Hot Standby Router Protocol"
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) router advertisements and router solicitation messages to allow a host to discover the addresses of operational routers on the subnet. ...more on Wikipedia about "ICMP Router Discovery Protocol"
Internal Gateway Protocol (IGP) refers to a routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system. The most commonly used IGPs are RIP, OSPF and IS-IS. ...more on Wikipedia about "Interior Gateway Protocol"
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a proprietary distance-vector routing protocol invented by Cisco, used by routers to exchange routing data within an autonomous system. ...more on Wikipedia about "Interior Gateway Routing Protocol"
Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS), is a protocol used by network devices ( routers) to determine the best way to forward datagrams or packets through a packet-based network, a process called routing. ...more on Wikipedia about "IS-IS"
A Link-state routing protocol is one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet-switched networks for computer communications. ...more on Wikipedia about "Link-state routing protocol"
Taken from: http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers ...more on Wikipedia about "List of IP protocol numbers"
Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) is a computer network protocol in the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) family of multicast routing protocols. ...more on Wikipedia about "Multicast Source Discovery Protocol"
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state, hierarchical Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing protocol. The well-known Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed of the network topology which is identical on all routers in the area. ...more on Wikipedia about "Open Shortest Path First"
Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM) is a family of multicast routing protocols that can provide one-to-many and many-to-many distribution of data over the Internet. The "protocol-independent" part refers to the fact that PIM does not include its own topology discovery mechanism, but instead uses routing information supplied by other traditional routing protocols such as BGP. ...more on Wikipedia about "Protocol Independent Multicast"
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the most commonly used Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing protocols on internal networks (and to a lesser extent, networks connected to the Internet), which helps routers dynamically adapt to changes of network connections by communicating information about which networks each router can reach and how far away those networks are. ...more on Wikipedia about "Routing Information Protocol"
Routing protocols allow different computer networks to communicate. Some commonly used routing protocols are: ...more on Wikipedia about "Routing protocols"
(Split horizon) In this example A uses the path via B to reach C. ...more on Wikipedia about "Split horizon"
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a non-proprietary redundancy protocol described in RFC 3768 designed to increase the availability of the default gateway servicing hosts on the same subnet. This increased reliability is achieved by advertising a "virtual router" (an abstract representation of master and backup routers acting as a group) as a default gateway to the host(s) instead of one physical router. Two or more physical routers are then configured to stand for the virtual router, with only one doing the actual routing at any given time. If the current physical router that is routing the data on behalf of the virtual router fails, an arrangement is made for another physical router to automatically replace it. The physical router that is currently forwarding data on behalf of the virtual router is called the master router. Physical routers standing by to take over from the master router in case something goes wrong are called backup routers. ...more on Wikipedia about "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol"
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