Beginning with Vedantic Hindu philosophy, the Ātman — Sanskrit (masculine nominative singular: Ātmā) is regarded as an underlying metaphysical self. It is first seen in its current Hindu usage in the Upanishads, some of which date back to 1000 BC. The word “Atman” (pronounced in Sanskrit like “Atma”) is interpreted by some schools as the “Main Essence” of man, as his Highest Self. “A” in this word is a negative particle. One popular, albeit apocryphal, etymology has it that the 'tma' of "atma" “Tma” means “darkness” in light of the word “tamas” – “darkness, ignorance or inertia”, “spiritual darkness” – has the same root. Therefore “A-tma” or “Atman” means “opposite to darkness”, “shining”. ...more on Wikipedia about "Atman (Hinduism)"
The Sanskrit term Ayas means metal and can refer to bronze, copper or iron. The Rig Veda refers to ayas, and also states that the Dasyus had Ayas (RV 2.20.8). The references to Ayas in the Rig Veda probably refer to bronze or copper rather than to iron (e.g. Frawley 1991). The Atharva Veda and the Satapatha Brahmana however refer to krsna ayas ("black metal"), which could be iron (but possibly also iron ore and iron items not made of smelted iron). While there is to date no proven evidence for smelted iron in the Indus Valley Civilization, iron ore and iron items have been unearthed in eight Indus Valley sites, some of them dating to before 2600 BCE (see Bryant 2001: 246-248, 339). There remains the possibility that some of these items were made of smelted iron, and the term "krsna ayas" might possibly also refer to these iron items, even if they are not made of smelted iron. The earlist evidence for smelted iron in India dates to 1300 to 1000 BCE (see Bryant 2001: 246-248). These early findings also occur in places like the Deccan, and according to D.K. Chakrabarti, the earliest evidence for smelted iron occurs in inner India, not in north-western India (Bryant 2001: 246). Moreover, the dates for iron in India are not later than in those of Central Asia, and according to some scholars (e.g. Koshelenko 1986) the dates for smelted iron may actually be earlier in India than in Central Asia and Iran (see Bryant 2001: 247). The Iron Age did however not necessary imply a major social transformation, and Gregory Possehl wrote that "the iron age is more of a continuation of the past then a break with it" (Bryant 2001). ...more on Wikipedia about "Ayas"
Çakyamuni is Sanskrit, meaning The Jewel Of The Çakyas. The Çakyas are people of the tribe to whom Siddharta Gautama (who later became Buddha) belong. ...more on Wikipedia about "Çakyamuni"
In Hinduism and its spiritual systems of yoga and in some related eastern cultures, as well as in some segments of the New Age movement -- and to some degree the distinctly different New Thought movement -- a chakra is thought to be an energy node in the human body. ...more on Wikipedia about "Chakra"
A guru (गुरू Sanskrit) is a teacher in Hinduism, Buddhism or Sikhism. Based on a long line of philosophical understanding as to the importance of knowledge, the guru is seen in these religions as a sacred conduit, or a way to self-realization. In India and among people of Hindu, Buddhist, or Sikh belief, the title retains a hallowed meaning. ...more on Wikipedia about "Guru"
Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, "to do", meaning deed) or Kamma ( Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several eastern religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. Karma is a sum of all that an individual has done and is currently doing. The effects of those deeds actively create present and future experiences, thus making one responsible for one's own life. In religions that incorporate reincarnation, karma extends through one's present life and all past and future lives as well. ...more on Wikipedia about "Karma"
Navaras or Mudras is a Sanskrit word that literally translates into "Nine Tastes" (Nav - Nine, Ras - Taste). It is believed in Indian classical dances that a person is capable of nine different emotions - ways of expressing onself or reacting to various other factors. The Navaras are the expressions of an Indian classical dancer (Bharatha Nattiyam, Kathakali,...) to show various different emotions by using a variety of facial expressions and hand gestures. ...more on Wikipedia about "Navaras"
The Sanskrit term Sahaja means natural joy, amoral, elevating all worldly things to a divine status, to dissolve natural senses into divine expression. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sahaja"
Samadhi is a term used in Hindu and Buddhist yogic meditation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Samadhi"
The Sanskrit term Samarasa means equipoise in feelings, non-discriminating, the mind at rest. ...more on Wikipedia about "Samarasa"
Sarva is a Sanskrit word meaning all or everything. Sarva is a name of Shiva, but it is not very commonly used. The name implies that Shiva encompasses everything in creation and is one with the material universe. However, Shiva's relationship to the material universe is complicated and involves some paradox. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sarva"
Satya is a Sanskrit word that loosely translates into English as "Truth." Satya is pronounced like Libya, with two and a half or three syllables. It is a term of power due to its purity and meaning and has become the emblem of many peaceful social movements, particularly those centered on social justice, environmentalism and vegetarianism. ...more on Wikipedia about "Satya"
Svecchachara is the Sanskrit equivalent of the Greek word Thelema, interpreted by Aleister Crowley as "Do What Thou Wilt." ...more on Wikipedia about "Svecchachara"
Yoga is a family of ancient spiritual practices that originated in India, where it remains a vibrant living tradition and is seen as a means to enlightenment. Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Raja Yoga are considered the four main yogas, but there are many other types. In other parts of the world where yoga is popular,notably the United States, yoga has become associated with the asanas (postures) of Hatha Yoga, which are popular as fitness exercises. Yoga as a means to enlightenment is central to Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and has influenced other religious and spiritual practices throughout the world. Important Hindu texts establishing the basis for yoga include the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ...more on Wikipedia about "Yoga"
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In Hindu philosophy the cycle of evolution of life is divided into four yugas (epochs or eras): ...more on Wikipedia about "Yuga"
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