A concept in continental philosophy and critical theory, the public sphere contrasts with the private sphere, and is the part of life in which one is interacting with others and with society at large. Much of the thought about the public sphere relates to the concept of identity and identity politics. ...more on Wikipedia about "Public sphere"
Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a wrongdoer as a response to something unwanted that the wrongdoer has done. In psychological terms this is known as "positive punishment". "Negative punishment", on the other hand, is when something is removed from or denied to the punishee. A prisoner, for example, is both positively and negatively punished. He has an unpleasant thing imposed on him and also his freedom is removed. If the behavior does not decrease then it is not considered "punishment" in psychology terms. ...more on Wikipedia about "Punishment"
Pure Sociology is an approach developed by Donald Black , initially to explain variation in legal behavior and later applied to a broad range of forms of conflict management as well as to the distribution of ideas, science, art, and God, by Black as well as a growing school of Blackian Sociologists. ...more on Wikipedia about "Pure sociology"
Quantitative history is an application of statistical methodology developed in social science into the field of history. This type of history is often ignored by historians who conceptualize history as a record of events and view the theoretical and quantitative analysis of these events with skepticism and sometimes disdain. ...more on Wikipedia about "Quantitative history"
Queue areas are areas in which people queue ( first-come, first-served), that is they wait in line for something. Examples include checking out the groceries or other goods that have been collected in a self-service shop, in a shop without self-service, at an ATM, at a ticket desk, or in a taxi stand. In economics, queuing is seen as one way to ration scarce goods and services. ...more on Wikipedia about "Queue area"
Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism, and of complex political interactions between members of different groups. ...more on Wikipedia about "Race relations"
Race, milieu, and moment were the three aspects of the literary critic and sociologist Hippolyte Taine's attempt at a scientific account of literature. Taine used these words in French (race, milieu et moment); the terms have become widespread in literary criticism in English, but are used in this context in senses closer to the French meanings of the words than the English meanings, which are, roughly, nation, environment, and time. ...more on Wikipedia about "Race, milieu, and moment"
Racial realism is a term used for either of two directly opposed positions, both motivated by the durability and social importance of racial distinctions: ...more on Wikipedia about "Racial realism"
Racism refers to beliefs, practices, and institutions that discriminate against people based on their perceived or ascribed " race". Primarily, it refers to an assumption that the human species can meaningfully be divided into races, together with hostility to people of certain races or a belief, conscious or unconscious, that people of different races differ in value. Some people whose thinking about others uses racial categories believe that different races can be placed on a ranked, hierarchical scale. ...more on Wikipedia about "Racism"
Rape culture is a term used to denote a culture in which rape and other sexual violence is common and in which prevalent attitudes, norms, practices, and media condone, normalize, excuse, or encourage rape or other violence against women. Within such paradigms, it is a well-established assertion of feminist social critics that such a thing as "trivial" or "harmless" sexism does not exist; for instance, telling a sexist joke is interpreted as fostering a misogynistic disrespect for women and an accompanying disregard for their well-being, which can ultimately make rape seem acceptable. ...more on Wikipedia about "Rape culture"
Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. The majority of the modern states of the twentieth century are rational-legal authorities, according to those who use this form of classification. ...more on Wikipedia about "Rational-legal authority"
In sociology, rationalization is the process whereby an increasing number of social actions and interactions become based on considerations of efficiency or calculation rather than on motivations derived from custom, tradition, or emotion. It is conceived of as a core part of modernization and as manifested especially in behavior in the capitalist market; rational administration of the state and bureacracy; the extension of modern science; and the expansion of modern technology. Some (such as the Frankfurt School) have argued that the spread of rationalization based on calculation and efficiency dehumanizes society. ...more on Wikipedia about "Rationalization (sociology)"
Reciprocal socialization is a socialization process that is bidirectional; children socialize parents just as parents socialize children. For example, the interaction of mothers and their infants is sometimes symbolized as a dance or dialogue in which following actions of the partners are closely coordinated. This coordinated dance or dialogue can assume the form of mutual synchrony, or it can be reciprocal in a more precise sense. The actions of the partners can be matched, as when one partner imitates the other or when there is mutual smiling. ...more on Wikipedia about "Reciprocal socialization"
:Reform Movement redirects here. For specific organizations by that name, see Reform Movement (disambiguation) ...more on Wikipedia about "Reform movement"
A role (sometimes spelled as rôle) or social role (in sociology) is a set of connected behaviours, rights and obligations as conceptualised by actors in a social situation. It is mostly defined as an expected behaviour in a given individual social status and social position. ...more on Wikipedia about "Role"
Role model refers to a person who fills his or her role as a good or bad example for others. A good example is a positive role model. A bad example is a negative role model. The term role model on its own often means positive role model. ...more on Wikipedia about "Role model"
Rural flight is the migration of people from the countryside to towns or cities, primarily for economical motives. ...more on Wikipedia about "Rural flight"
Rural sociology is a field of sociology associated with the study of life in small towns and the country. It is a scientific study of social arrangements and behaviour amongst peoples that are distanced from points of concentrated activity. Much of rural sociology involves the examination of statistical data. ...more on Wikipedia about "Rural sociology"
:The term sacred cow or holy cow is also used for a person, institution, idea (often a theory - then: " pet theory") or ideology that is immune (usually unreasonably so) from criticism or opposition. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sacred cow"
From its modern interpretations to its antecedents when maritime nations would send young naval officer candidates to sea (e.g., see Outward Bound), sail training provides an unconventional and effective way of building many useful skills on and off the water. Through the unique environment of the sea, contemporary sail trainees learn that what they are doing is important and that their efforts are essential to the operation and safety of the ship. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sail training"
Sanskritisation is the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. It is a term coined by the late M.N.Srinivas, the eminent sociologist from India. He first propounded this theory in the thesis for his D.Phil degree at Oxford University. The thesis was later brought out as a book titled Religion and Society Among the Coorgs of South India. Published in 1952, the book was an ethnographical study of the Coorg Community of south Karnataka, India. ...more on Wikipedia about "Sanskritisation"
Schismogenesis literally means "creation of division". The term derives from the Greek words skhisma "cleft" (borrowed into English as schism, "division into opposing factions"), and genesis "generation, creation" (deriving in turn from gignesthai "be born or produced, creation, a coming into being"). ...more on Wikipedia about "Schismogenesis"
Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in its broader social, historical, and philosophical context. It is concerned with the history of scientific disciplines, the interrelationships between science and society, and the covert purposes that underlie scientific knowledge claims. At the same time that it is critical of science, it holds out the possibility of broader public participation in science policy issues. ...more on Wikipedia about "Science studies"
Secularization is a contentious term because the concept of secularization can be confused with secularism, a philosophical and political movement that promotes the idea that society benefits by being less religious, whereas the opposing view is that the values and beliefs implicit in religions support a more moral and, therefore, better society. As understood by philosophers and sociologists, secularization has many levels of meaning, both as a theory and a historical process. Theoreticians such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Émile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would see a decline in levels of religiosity. The study of the process seeks to determine the manner in which, or extent to which religious creeds, practices and institutions are losing their social significance (if at all). Both rely on the concept of a secular state: one that separates governmental and religious institutions, and bases its authority on man-made law, not in religious doctrine. ...more on Wikipedia about "Secularization"
The self is a key construct in several schools of psychology. Usages differ between theorists and fields of study, but in general the self refers to the conscious, reflective personality of an individual. The study of the self involves significant methodological problems, especially concerning consciousness. Some of these are taken up in philosophy of mind and metaphysics. ...more on Wikipedia about "Self (psychology)" The www.shortopedia.com spirit
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