Almış (Almas) iltäbär / /, ul-MESH (the end of 9th century – the beginning of 10th) was the first Muslim ruler ( emir) of Volga Bulgaria. ...more on Wikipedia about "Almış"
Alp Ilutuer (the 2 half of 7th century) was a legendary king ( elteber) of Sabirs lived near the Caspian Sea. That time Sabirs livet to the north from Derbend, modern Daghestan and were tributes of Khazars. In 670s Sabirs he provoked some raids against Khazars and heroically died in war. A legend about Alp is still preserved around Tatars and Chuvashes. ...more on Wikipedia about "Alp Ilutuer"
Alpawıt (Alpağıt) is an ancient Turkic term, that had a similar meaning with batır and probably was derived from " alıp". In 6th-13th centuries alpawıt was a chief of military units, especially of guard. In Khanate of Kazan and Qasim Khanate this term was used for the highest military rank. But since 16th-17th centuries Tatars used this term for their landlords. ...more on Wikipedia about "Alpawıt"
Ar begs (in Russian chronicles "Арские князья") was a formation of Noqrat Tatars' nobility, served to Muscovy in 16th-17th century. In 14th-15th centuries they were rulers of semi-independent duchy in the middle Cheptsa, nowadays Udmurtia. at the first time, their lands were under Kazan Khanate's and later under Russian influence. Begs also participated in wars for Udmurtia between Kazan and Muscovy. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ar begs"
The Khanate of Astrakhan ( Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. The Khanate existed in the 15th and 16th centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga river, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan is now located. ...more on Wikipedia about "Astrakhan Khanate"
Baranjars (Balanjars, Belenjers) were a confederacy of Turkic tribes who flourished in the early Middle Ages. They are first mentioned in Arab chronicles of the 7th century. They were supposedly settled in the northern Caucasus Mountains in the 370s CE, having come to Europe with the nomadic Huns. From the second half of the 6th century they were subjected to the Göktürk Khaganate. After the collapse of the Göktürk power in the 630s they formed a state centered on the town of Balanjar on the lower Terek and Sulak rivers in Daghestan and along the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Their independence was shortlived, however, and by the end of the 630s they were incorporated into the Khazar Khaganate. In the ninth and tenth centuries some Baranjars resettled in Volga Bulgaria, to the environs of Bilär and later were absorbed into the Volga Bulgarian nation. ...more on Wikipedia about "Baranjars"
Bilär (Bülär) – was a medieval city in Volga Bulgaria during the 10th – 13th centuries. It was located on the left bank of the Keçe Çirmeşän river in today Alekseyevski Rayon of Tatarstan. The city was founded by the Bilär tribe of Volga Bulgar people. Bilär is also known as "Great City" in the Russian chronicles. It was the main trade center in Middle Volga. In the 12th-13th centuries Bilär was a capital of Volga Bulgaria. In 1236, the city was ruined by hordes of Batu khan. The city was later rebuilt, but it never regained its former size or power. ...more on Wikipedia about "Bilär"
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Bilars were medieval (10th-13th centuries) Turkic tribe's commonwealth in the Middle Volga. Bilars are known to found Bilär city. Since 10th century they were a part of Volga Bulgaria. In 11th-14th centuries their land (today Alekseyevski District of Tatarstan) was one of Bulgaria's emirates or duchies. ...more on Wikipedia about "Bilars"
Burtas or Bortas (plural Bortaslar) were a tribe of uncertain ethnolinguistic affiliation inhabiting the steppe region north of the Caspian Sea in medieval times (modern Ulyanovsk Oblast and Saratov Oblast of the Russian Federation). They were subject to the Khazars. ...more on Wikipedia about "Burtas"
The Cäğfär Taríxı (pronounced "jagh-far tar-rikh-ee" Cyrillic: Җәгъфәр тарихы; Tatar for History of Cäğfär (Ja'far)) is a controversial text purporting to be a compilation of early historical material on the Bulgars, Khazars and other Eurasian nomads. According to its advocates, the Cäğfär Taríxı was written in its present form in the late 17th century in Tatarstan. It refers to numerous persons and historical events unattested to in other sources; for example, it makes references to mid 7th century Khazar rulers named Khalga and Kaban, who do not appear in the account of al-Tabari, in the Schechter Letter, in the Khazar Correspondence, or any other extant document. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cäğfär Taríxı"
Çalım /cha-LEM/ was a citadel and a staff of Tatar troops, which was constructed during the war against the Russian occupation of Khanate of Kazan in 1552- 1556. Citadel was constructed by people under Mameshbirde at the right bank of Volga at the Sundır hill in 1555. It was situated in 160 çaqrım upper than Kazan. In 1556 it was seizured by Russian troops and ruined. ...more on Wikipedia about "Çalım"
(Cangali bek) Canğäli (pronounce: jah-n-gha-LEE) (Russian: Yenaley Shugurov/Еналей Шугуров) (?- 1616), Tatar bäk (nobleman), the leader of Canğäli movement in 1615-16 against Russia. In 1616 was caught and killed by Russian troops in Kazan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cangali bek"
Canghali (also Jan Ali, Can Ali, Tatar: Canğäli, pronounced: jah-n-gha-LEE) ( 1516 – 1535) was khan of Qasim in 1519- 32 and then Kazan in 1532-35. He was the son of Shayex Allahiar (Şäyex Allahiär) and younger brother of Shahgali. Qasim Khanate was a vassal state of Muscovy. Canghali as its ruler had close ties with Muscovy. In 1532, Vasili III of Russia ousted Kazan khan Safa Giray and established 16 year old Canghali as a puppet ruler of a bigger and generally independent Kazan Khanate. In 1533 Canghali married Soyembika, the daughter of Nogay nobleman. During his reign he was completely manipulated by Bulat Shirin (Bulat Şirin, /boo-LAHY shee-RREEN/) and queen Gawharshat (Gäwhärşat, /geh-w-ha-rr-SHAHT/), widow or sister of Moxammat Amin khan. During 1535 coup of Kazan nobility, he lost the throne and was killed, probably in Iske Qazan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cangali khan"
Cükätaw or Juketaw (called Zhukotin in Russian chronicles) was a medieval Bolgar city during the 10th to 15th centuries CE. The city was situated on the right bank of Kama, near the modern city of Çístay (Chistopol). In the 10th to 13th centuries it was one of the most important furniture trade centres of Volga Bulgaria. The city was the capital of Cükätaw Duchy. In 1236 Cükätaw was ruined Batu Khan's troops. Following Russian pirate (ushkuyniki) raids in the 14th and 15th centuries, the city's power declined. ...more on Wikipedia about "Cükätaw" It's time to think about shortopedia.
Esegels (or Äsägel) were Eurasian nomads, that enjoyed Volga Bulgaria and were assimilated to Bolgars. Probably they were Turkic origin (or may be Ugric). They are supposed to originate from Central Asian tribe Chigil or Ishkil. Their living in Volga Bulgaria in 9th-10th centuries was also mentioned at ibn Fadlan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Esegel"
Ghabdellatif (Abdul Latyf, Abd al Latif; Tatar: Ğäbdellatíf) (ca. 1475 - after 1502) was the khan of Kazan Khanate in 1496-1502. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ghabdellatif"
(Ghabdennasir Qursawi) Qursawí Ğäbdennasír İbrahim ulı /quhrr-sah-WEE ghab-den-nah-SEYR ee-brah-HEEM oo-LE/, sometimes spelled as Kursavi or Koursavi ( 1776- 1812) was a Tatar educator and an Islamic theologian or Jadidist. He was a brother of Ğäbdelxaliq Qursawí /ghab-del-khah-leeq/. He studied at Mäçkärä /mach-ka-RA/(Malmyzh District's) village medrese and later at "Mir-Arab" medrese in Bukhara. From 1794 to 1808 he was imam of the village mosque in Yuğarı Qursa /yoo-ghah-RE qoor-SAH/ ( Kazan District and the headmaster of his own medrese. He is credited with the revival of Islam (or Jadidism) among the Tatars, and was the author of numerous articles about religion. He died during the hajj and is buried in Istanbul. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ghabdennasir Qursawi"
Ghiasetdin ( Tatar: Ğiäsetdin) (? – 1438 or 1445), was a ruler of Kazan (Ghiasetdin Ulus) from the 1420s. He was a son of Khan Shadibak (or a son of Jalal ad-Din). After the death of Idegay in 1419 he usurped the throne of the Kazan Duchy. He also struggled against Olug Moxammat Khan for the leadership of the Golden Horde, and died in this struggle. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ghiasetdin"
Great Hungary (Magna Hungaria) was a state in what is today Bashkortostan. ...more on Wikipedia about "Great Hungary"
(History of Tatarstan) The main article is Onoghur ...more on Wikipedia about "History of Tatarstan"
İbrahim khan (?- 1479) was a ruler of Kazan Khanate (since 1467). He was the son of Mäxmüd. He was crowned after Xalil's death and was married to his wife Nursoltan. In 1467- 1469 and 1478 he participated in wars against Muscovy. After the treaty concluded with Ivan III all Russian prisoners of war were liberated. He was a supporter of policy of non-intervention to Muscovy's politics. ...more on Wikipedia about "Ibrahim of Kazan"
Idel-Ural literally means "Volga-Ural" in Tatar. ...more on Wikipedia about "Idel-Ural State"
Ilham (Ghali, Ali, Ilham, Aleham, Tatar: İlham, Ğäli) (ca. 1449 - ca. 1490) was a khan of Kazan Khanate in 1479- 1484 and 1485- 1487. ...more on Wikipedia about "İlham"
İske Qazan (literally: Old Kazan), was a Bolgar-Tatar city in the 13-16th centuries, situated on the banks of the Qazansu river in the Qazan artı or Zakazanye region, in what is today the Russian Federation republic of Tatarstan . ...more on Wikipedia about "Iske Qazan"
Jagoldai, Cağalday ( Polish: Jaholdaj ) (pronounce: yah-gohl-DAI or jah-ghahl-DAY) – little Tatar tyumen (duchy) in today Kursk Oblast of Russia, vassal of Great Lithuanian Duchy in 15th-16th century. Was founded in 1438 by Tatars of Golden Horde. ...more on Wikipedia about "Jagoldai"
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