Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 ( HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune system's own T-cells. ...more on Wikipedia about "Adult T-cell leukemia"
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (or acronym AIDS or Aids), is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is a condition that results from the latter stages of advanced HIV infection in humans, thereby leaving compromised indivduals prone to opportunistic infections and tumors. Although treatments for both AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus' progression in a human patient, there is no known cure. ...more on Wikipedia about "AIDS"
Antigenic drift refers to mutations in the influenza virus that cause changes in the virus's surface proteins over time. Those proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) are the causes of the body's immune reaction (i.e., they are antigens). Mutations occur almost yearly in the influenza virus, and while the change might not be a major one (which would then be called an antigenic shift), they are sufficient to lessen your body's ability to protect you with antibodies. For this reason, vaccination is required on a yearly basis, with the vaccine adjusted to the new antigen. In influenza, mutations happen frequently because the virus has no way of checking its RNA for errors. Antigenic drift has been responsible for heavier than normal flu seasons in the past, like the outbreak of influenza A Fujian(H3N2) in the 2003 - 2004 flu season. All influenza viruses experience some form of antigenic drift, but it's most pronounced in the influenza A virus. Antigenic drift is not the same as antigenic shift, which is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. ...more on Wikipedia about "Antigenic drift"
Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. The term antigenic shift is specific to the influenza literature; in other viral systems, the same process is called reassortment or viral shift. ...more on Wikipedia about "Antigenic shift"
An Arbovirus (short for Arthropod-borne virus) is a virus that is primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks and mosquitoes. The term Arbovirus is not part of the taxonomic classification of viruses, that is, viruses from different families and even orders can be arboviruses. Arboviruses (over 200 recognized) are often pathogenic for humans (over 50 identified); can be stored inside the arthropod body or even proliferate, without actually damaging the insect. Arboviruses feature some 30-180nm in size of a spherical or rod-like shape and have usually RNA-based genomes. Arboviral infections are likely to be endemic to the transmitters' habitats. ...more on Wikipedia about "Arbovirus"
Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. Originally identified in sheep and horses in Europe, it has since been found to occur in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including birds, cattle, cats and primates and has been found in animals in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. The name is derived from the town of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which suffered an epidemic of the disease in horses in 1885. ...more on Wikipedia about "Borna disease"
The outer shell of a virus is called the capsid. It consists of several monomeric subunits made of protein. The capsid serves three main purposes : ...more on Wikipedia about "Capsid"
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In virology, coinfection describes the simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more virus particles. Compare to superinfection. ...more on Wikipedia about "Coinfection"
In Britain, the Common Cold Unit (CCU) was set up by the civilian Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1946 on the site of a former military hospital, the Harvard Hospital, at Harnham Down near Salisbury in Wiltshire. Its aim was to undertake laboratory and epidemiological research on the common cold, with a view to reducing its human and economic costs; common colds account for a third of all acute respiratory infections and the economic costs are substantial in terms of days off work. ...more on Wikipedia about "Common Cold Unit"
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. Viruses that either have RNA as their genetic material or use an RNA intermediate during replication are called RNA viruses. The DNA can either be single-stranded (ssDNA) or double-stranded (dsDNA), the latter being more common. ...more on Wikipedia about "DNA virus"
Eleanor McBean was a layperson anti- vaccine activist who wrote one of the classic anti-vaccine books called The Poisoned Needle. ...more on Wikipedia about "Eleanor McBean"
The error threshold is a concept in the study of evolutionary biology and population genetics and is concerned with the origins of life, in particular of very early life, before the advent of DNA. The first self-replicating molecules were probably small ribozyme-like RNA molecules. These molecules consist of strings of base pairs or "digits", and their order is a code that directs how the molecule interacts with its environment. All replication is subject to mutation error. During the replication process, each digit has a certain probability of being replaced by some other digit, which changes the way the molecule interacts with its environment, and may increase or decrease its fitness, or ability to reproduce, in that environment. ...more on Wikipedia about "Error threshold (evolution)"
H5N2 is a strain of avian influenza virus. In China, inactivated H5N2 has used as a vaccine for H5N1. ...more on Wikipedia about "H5N2"
In colloquial use, herpes virus refers to the herpes simplex virus, particularly when transmitted sexually. In scientific use, herpesvirus (without the space) refers to a virus of the taxonomic family herpesviridae. ...more on Wikipedia about "Herpes virus" shortopedia - Go in quickly.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) test kits used both to screen donor blood, blood components and cellular products, and to diagnose, treat and monitor persons with HIV and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS) are regulated in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA). ...more on Wikipedia about "HIV test"
In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a virus, parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter. ...more on Wikipedia about "Host (biology)"
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the name of the human pneumovirus. It is a negative single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumovirinae. ...more on Wikipedia about "Human respiratory syncytial virus"
Infectious mononucleosis (also known as mono, the kissing disease, Pfeiffer's disease, and glandular fever) is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue. It is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or the cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is typically transmitted through saliva or blood, often through kissing, or by sharing a drinking glass, eating utensil or needle. Contrary to common belief, the disease is relatively non-contagious. The causative virus is also found in the mucus of the infected person, so it is also easily spread through coughing or sneezing. ...more on Wikipedia about "Infectious mononucleosis"
Influenzavirus A is a genus of the family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae. Influenzavirus A has only one species in it; that species is called "influenza A virus". Influenza A virus causes "avian influenza" (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu). Variants are sometimes also labeled according to the species affected; such as "human flu" or "swine flu". ...more on Wikipedia about "Influenzavirus A"
Integrase is an enzyme produced by a virus that enables genetic material that is helpful to the virus, proviral DNA, to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell. ...more on Wikipedia about "Integrase"
:This is a list of biological viruses. See also List of computer viruses ...more on Wikipedia about "List of viruses" http://www.shortopedia.com Is Good For You.
The lysogenic cycle is complementary to the lytic cycle for viral entry and reproduction within cells. While the lytic cycle is common to both animal viruses and bacterial phages, the lysogenic cycle is more commonly found in animal viruses. ...more on Wikipedia about "Lysogenic cycle"
Lysogeny is the fusion of the nucleic acid of a bacteriophage with that of a host bacterium so that the potential exists for the newly integrated genetic material to be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division. ...more on Wikipedia about "Lysogeny"
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. These cycles should not, however, be seen as discrete and separate, but rather as somewhat interchangeable. The lytic cycle is typically thought of as the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell, which is how viruses cause damage to their hosts. ...more on Wikipedia about "Lytic cycle"
In virology, matrix proteins are structural proteins linking the viral envelope with the virus core. ...more on Wikipedia about "Matrix protein"
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